Sunday, February 27, 2011


[* A paper read before the Saiva-Siddhanta Conference at Ramnad, 1910. - Ed. L. T.]


    Not very long ago, at the close of the seventeenth century of the Christian era, when the old and once powerful kingdoms of Chera, Chola and Pandiya were in their decline, there reigned in Vijayanagaram1 of the Chola country Tirumalai Nayagar, a chief of princely repute. [1
This was apparently the name of a principality bordering on the environs of Trichinopoly. There is a place called Vijayapuram near Tiruvalur, Tanjore District - Ed. L. T.] Much is not known of the history of his line or of his contemporaries; but his grandson Vijayaranga Sokkanatha Nayagar who is said to have reigned between A. C. 1704 and 1731 had the good fortune of having under him a minister, born of a line of reputed statesmen in the sacred town of Vedaranyam, and a Vellala by caste. The minister's spotless character and great piety won for him the favour of his Chief who entrusted him with all the responsible duties of the State. Kediliyappa Pillai (that was his name) was a household word in the country and as the name signifies he was the flawless or the sinless squire of the land. His only son Sivachidambaram Pillai was allowed to be adopted by his paternal uncle and the home of Kediliyappa Pillai was without the charms and joys of a babe. To call back his son from the home of his brother would have been heart-rending to his brother and on that account he sent up his supplications to the Blissful Lord of Trichinopoly, Tayumanesvarar*, for the boon of a son. [* The name of the Divinity us really Matribhutesvara which phrase is aptly rendered into Tamil as Tayumanavar or Tayumanar. - Ed. L. T.] And before long he was blessed with a son who was named after the Lord who listened to his prayers


    The joy of the parents knew no bounds and the boy grew திருமறைக்காடு (Tirumaraikkadu3), his birth place, under the kind care of கெஜவல்லியம்மை (Gajavalli-ammai) his mother, and under the wings of தாயுமானேஸ்வரர் (Tayumanesvarar) the mother of all.

This is Vedaranyam. We chance to know the place and its traditions rather intimately, as we hail there from. According to the prevalent information on the lips of very oldish folk at Vedaranyam, to which we must attach great importance, in the absence of other sources of reliable testimony, Tayumanar's mother was a native of Vedaranyam. Tayumanar's childhood and early boyhood were spent at Vedaranyam. The only surviving, prominent member of his mother's family, and hence related to him, in a measure, by blood-ties, is Mr. Appakuttiya Pillai of Vedaranyam, who is the Manager of the Devasthanam Office attached to the Vedaranyam Temple. If we remember correctly, Mr. Appakuttiya Pillai's father was the grand nephew of Tayumanar's mother. Mr. Aypakuttiya Pillai is, we fancy, blessed with children, and there is hence every chance of the future perpetuation of his line. Ed. L. T.]

At the age of discretion he was schooled under proper guidance and became proficient in literature, both Sanskrit and Tamil, and above all, in the study of Jnana Sastras, the sciences of wisdom of the Great Masters. By now the temporal life of Kediliyappa Pillai was coming to an end and when he breathed his last, to the great regret of the Chief, Vijayaranga, the lad of barely sixteen, was called to fill the gap caused by his father, in the position of the Chief Minister of State. It was no surprise that he filled the place worthily to the satisfaction of his master and the people, and although his attention was engrossed in the duties of the State, his spirit was hankering after the Bliss of Peace and eagerly looking for a Master and a Guide, who will initiate him into the mysteries of the Spiritual Realm. With a view to hit at the proper Master he would, at the risk of being arrogant, question every Jnani whom he came across and discuss with him the knotty problems of Religion and Philosophy. He was a frequent visitor at the temple of

(Tayumanesvarar) and one day he saw at the entrance to the shrine of
தக்ஷிணாமூர்த்தி (Dakshinamurti), a Sage in deep meditation prepossessing and graceful. He approached him with great obeisance and fell a victim to the spiritual glance of the sage. With quailed heart and shrunken mind, he stood motionless, unable to collect himself to put his usual questions. His nerves failed him and he fell, prostrating at the Holy feet of the Sage. Not a word passed between them, for, the lad was almost dumb-stricken and the Sage was the Speechless Master மெளனகுரு (Maunaguru)*. [* This Sage is often apostrophised by Tayumanar in his Poems. - Ed. L. T.] The master now departed hence and the lad mechanically followed. On they went to a lonely place, where the lad poured out his prayers and tears to move the master to speak a word. The word of Blessing came at last, to his great joy. Thus encouraged, he put his first question - Lord! what is the book in your hand?

    In short sweet words the Master impressed upon him the excellence of the spiritual experience of Sivasvanubhavam and stated that the book in his hand was the guide to such a goal - சிவஞானசித்தி (Sivajnanasiddhi) † the treasure of the spiritually inclined. After initiating him in the preliminaries, the master instructed him to pass the stage of the householder and to be 'resigned and alone-become', சும்மாயிருத்தல், before he could be led into Jnana-Nishtha, the establishment-in-wisdom. The disciple parted, with reluctance, from the Master and continued his spiritual exercises among the worries of the State. His spiritual greatness soon became known in the land, and the king or chief himself no more looked upon him as his minister, but took him for his Master. But still the Government was carried on as usual until V'ijayaranga, ripe with love and devotion, under the guidance of his Minister-Master, resigned the earthly throne for the heavenly, and disappeared from the scene.

[† This is one of the classical mystic works devoted to the Agamanata. Its Sanskrit original is prized most, but difticult to get, and we have only seen portions thereof at the hands of some of the Dikshits of the Chidambaram Temple. We are told that complete Sanskrit manuscripts of the work, written in Grantha character, exist in Chidambaram, but that their owners will not readily part with them. Of course, the only form in which Siva-jnana-Siddhi is generally known, is the Tamil work bearing that name, which, in common with the Sanskrit original, is attributed to the same author who is known as Sivanandasivacharya, surnamed the Sakalagamapandita, ' the Master of all the Agamas.'—Ed. L.T.]

    Minister of State no more, but Master of Wisdom, Tayumanasvami, was free to go on his own way. The Government now devolved on the queen Minakshiyammai, who sent for the Svami, with a view to insist on his continuing the ministry. She had already heard of the accomplishments of the minister, both physical and mental, but not of the spiritual. She saw the minister before her, beaming with youth and vigour, princely beauty and lovely form, and offered him her kingdom and herself ; she saw the fleshly form of the Svami through her fleshly eyes, and wished to satisfy her carnal desire by enticing him with her offers. She little knew of the spirit within the form of the Svami. With pity for the ignorance of the poor queen, the Svami left the palace, went beyond the limits of her kingdom and settled at Devanagar. His brother Sivachidambaram Pillai and cousin Arulaiyappa Pillai, having heard of the Svami's departure from Trichinopoly, called on him at Devanagar, and entreated him to return home to settle in household life. Unable to cross the wishes of his brother, and in order to fulfil the commands of his Master, மெளனகுரு
(Maunaguru), he agreed and repaired to Vedaranyam where he soon tied the nuptial knot with
(Mattuvarkulal-ammai), a handsome maid.*

[* We shall make enquiries-about' the family whereof the bride of Tayumanar came, and acquaint our readers, in a future number, with particulars as regards the present representatives, if any, of that family. —Ed. L. T.]


    The duration of his household life was but short, during which his wife was brought to bed of a son and she departed this life. The son was named Kanaka: abhapati and was looked after by the father, until he was able to take care of himself, when there appeared, again, on the scene, the great sage மெளனகுரு
(Maunaguru) to shape the future of our Svami. Satisfied with the spiritual advancement of his disciple, the Master ordered him to take to ascetic life, renouncing all for the feet of the holy Lord. He instructed the Svami in the higher stage of the Yoga and the Jnana and the symbolic and the spiritual worship of the Lord, warning him not to be carried away by the great powers of Yoga that would unfold themselves in due course ; but to take to the straight and narrow, but illumining and blissful road leading to Oneness with the Consciousness and Bliss of the Supreme, The Master, after impressing upon him that to resign one's agency and to be indistinguishably absorbed in the Vast Expanse of the Blissful Sivasvarupa, was the goal of the ' initiated' and the true import of the Siddhanta Mahavakya, went his own way.


    Tayumanasvamigal, now the homeless ascetic, clothed in Nature's attire but for his span-cloth, proceeded on his pilgrimage visiting the famous shrines and holy waters, and pouring forth his mellifluous hymns to the glory of the Lord. While at Ramesvaram, the Svami, out of sympathy with the famine-stricken f)eople of the place, is said to have caused it to rain in abundance, by singing a verse, which was to this effect :—


            " If the true religion is the Saiva Religion, and

            the Lord of that Religion is the moon-decked

            God and if the goal is to overcome the five

            senses and to be absorbed in the Blissful Peace,

            Oh Ye clouds pour forth in torrents."


    He was soon tempted to pass the closing days of his life at Ramnad, where he was ever in spiritual communion until he attained Samadhi in A. C. 1742
in the presence of his disciples and followers among whom was Arujaiyar, whose admiration of the Svami is expressed in a poem.


    Thus ended the Svami's corporeal life, but it would perhaps be interesting to follow his spiritual life as evidenced in his sweet soul-stirring hymns, a remarkable feature of which is his confession and repentence for his sins on the one hand and the earnest prayer for God's Grace on the other ; his censure on himself for wallowing in the world of Samsara and the examination of the evil tendencies that lurk in the heart of a Samsarin. He would, as if in a trumpet voice, declare that he has been a sinner, given up to all the five-great-sins, that his heart harbours envy, pride, selfishness and anger and that kindness and mercy, forgiveness and charity, austerity and devotion are quite foreign to his nature. He would feelingly confess that his desires and passions have enslaved him so much that any resistance on his part is out of question ; he would look back into his gloomy past and exclaim that eons and eons have passed away leaving him still a sinner, grovelling in the dark nooks of the senses, and sense objects. All attachments he would give up; woman, gold and lands have no charm for him ; transient as they are, he has seen their pleasures and knows that they press him down into Samsara, ever so much he may try to soar higher; this body, filthy pot, full of worms and disease, is evanescent as a dream. And he, once given up to egotism and pride, is but a straw at the mercy of the current having no- power to act by himself, and viewed with the Universe around is but a speck on the Vast Expanse. He has come to know his smallness and dependence and renounces everything of the 'I' and the 'mine'.


    Purified by repentance and fortified by renunciation he pines for the Lord. Once he would beseech Him to appear before him, call out to Him to take him on to His Realm, and to class him with His devotees; he would address the hills and vales, the sun, the moon and the stars, the wind, beasts and birds and ask them if they had seen the Lord, at whose command they all live and move. He would break out into words like these,


    " O, Omnipresent Lord, does not the boundless ocean keep within a limit and millions and millions of worlds roll in space at Thy command? Did You not make a bow of Mount Meru, and swallow poison ? Haven't You infinite supernatural powers ? Is it difficult for You to devise a means to close my mind in concentration ? O Bliss of Brilliant form ! Supreme Intelligence that is enshrined in my heart, being the indiscernible Sat, many alien religionists gather round me and in contempt refer to me—behold behold, the mar of empty words. Nevertheless I
call out to Thee, as the pure One, the Light, the Cause, the Lord all pervading, ever dancing, with an utterly melting heart and You see I am exhausted and my face is withered and yet You would not have the mercy to call me to You. O Inestimable Treasure of the Seekers who seek not, who taught You this coldness towards me ? O, I see the reason why, Thou art accessible to the boundless ocean of Love of Thy devotees who, their bodies withering, bones melting, tears pouring down in torrents, constantly keep in mind the attachment to You, and run to You as a needle towards a magnet, with throbbing hearts and shivering frame singing and dancing, with smile shining like the moonlight and worship Thee with their lotus hands, rising again and again singing—' O Thou, the sky of wisdom, the Blissful rain of that sky, the flood of that rain, Hail, Hail!' But art Thou accessible to me of Stony heart? But then, thou canst bring down on earth the pleasures of Svarga. Thou canst make a beggar a crowned king. Thou canst change potshred into 18 carats gold. Thou canst bear the Earth on Thy Staff, Is it difficult for Thee to melt my stony heart like wax over fire?"


    His appeal to the Lord is very pathetic. He sings:


    "Look here, my Lord, of the different religions not one teaches alike; and the Great ones who have renounced, and are Speechless will not teach; the three-eyed Lord, who is the Teacher straightway absorbs one into Himself and instructs by intuition; then who will teach me in so many words that I may
be free from birth and death and be in everlasting Bliss; and as the Yogis will claim ray austerities and penances as theirs, I would like to be alone by myself and be at rest, but even then you instigate the Maya of the Mind to test me, then pray tell me how is your Slave to become Bliss itself."


    Thus he pined for the Grace of God, and evolved into a great Bhakta; there is not a hymn which would not impress upon us the depth of Love,—unalloyed spiritual Love—he was rolling in, and the height of True Wisdom he possessed, and the hymns are not only an index to his spiritual advancement, but also to his literary attainments. As a poet, he occupies an honoured place, perhaps unrivalled for simplicity and sweetness combined. As a Philosopher he is Remarkable for the clear grasp of abstruse doctrines and for the dexterity with which he clothed them in popular words. As a Yogi, he practised all the stages and as a Jnani, he saw and lived in the Light of Wisdom. He lived in the midst of modern surroundings and taught the truths of ancient doctrines, and by precept and example proved the truth that Religion must be lived. The key note of all his hymns is the same and even if all the other hymns were lost to us, the couplet,


    சினமிறக்கக்கற்றாலும், சித்தியெல்லாம் பெற்றாலும்,

    மனமிறக்கக்கல்லார்க்கு வாயேன்பராபரமே.


would testify to the kind of Religion he professed and practised.




    To enter fully into this part of the subject would be impossible in a short paper, and yet it is his teachings embodied in the sweet hymns that mark him out as the popular philosopher of the most modern times. His conception of God as the Absolute Existence, Consciousness and Bliss (அகண்டாகார ச ச்சிதாந ந்தசிவம்) presses itself upon the attention of even casual readers. His God is beyond Cause and Effect, Time and Space, beyond the ken of Religions, the reach of mind and the grasp of words, still the nearest of the nearest, the innermost dweller of the heart, the Life of all that lives and moves. He is where space is not. He shines where light is not. He is the all of the Universe and yet not all. His God is not He, or She or It or That. No description will be applicable, to the Truth. சமயநெறிகாணாதகாக்ஷி, வேதத்திலேதர்க்க வாதத்திலேவிளங்காது, விந்துநாத த்திலேயடங்காது அந்தவான்பொருள் நாடிக்கொள்ளே.
His God is not the Despotic Ruler who hurls thunders, fire and brimstone on his helpless creatures here below, who are meet only to receive His mercy but far removed from him as the poles from one another, in purity or holiness. His God is not the material Cause of the Universe, undergoing the changes^ incidental to evolution and involution. 'His God is not the Sat that throws over it a veil of its own and seems to evolve and involve but in truth does not. His God, in short is not the God of Arambavada, Parinamavada or Vivartavada but the God of Satkaryavada, who is the Efficient Cause of the Universe which evolves from its material cause ' Maya'-which is
ஆகிய சற்காரிய வூகத்துக்கேற்ற அமலம்.


    His Unknowable God is the Source of all Power and Light and acts through His Sakti of Grace. பரையெனும் கிரணம் சூழ்ந்த பானு. This Sakti, the power He wields, His Consort, the Lady in inseparable Union, the Guna that distinguishes Him from the rest, is Chit (Consciousness), Arul (Grace), Anandam (Bliss); in one word Grace. It is this that is often referred to as Chitsakti, Parasakti, AdiSakti and ArulSakti. This sun of Jnanasvarupa Sivam, the greatest of the great, spreads from His unapproachable height the rays of Consciousness, Grace and Bliss, his Sakti, to reach the depths of ignorance and iniquity. As the sun is known through his rays, this great Sun, God, is known through His rays of Grace. And this Grace, like the ocean, which sustains in its womb the legions of aquatic plants and animals, extending beyond their reach, ignored t)y them that frolic and gambol in its very womb is the Womb of Life, of Light and of all the worlds and is the all Container, நல்லருள் உதரமாய்ச் சமைந்தோய் - அருட்பூரணத்தில் பாராதிவைத்தபதி. And this Grace is the Holy Ghost that descends from Heaven in the form of the gentle dove and broods over the waters when darkness is upon the face of the deep; the Comforter that in-dwells the heart of all to lead the straying soul to Peace and Bliss, the spirit of Wisdom that illumines us and the path into Truth. கண்ணாடி போலவெல்லாம் காட்டும்திருவருள். And this Grace is the Mother that shows the Father to the crying babe and none cometh to the Father but through her தன்னையறியத் தனதருளால் தானுணர்த்துமன், for She is the Illuminator, the Instructor and the Guide.


    His God then has Sakti in inseparable union; and as Love and Gentleness are womanly qualities, this Sakti is appealed to as the Mother, and God as the Father. The images of Siva and Uma in our temples aptly represent this conception; and perhaps the fear that Uma seated on the left of §iva may not be a true representation of Samavaya Union, compelled our Teachers to devise the other image half man and half woman from head to foot, perhaps the nearest symbol of the Truth. To people ignorant of the rationale of symbol worship this representation may be meaningless and ridiculous but to those who understand the principle involved, it is one for appreciation, reverence and worship. Tayumanavar specially refers to this Samavaya Union when he sings - ஒயும் சன்மமினி யஞ்சல் யஞ்சலென் றுலகம் கண்டுதொழ வோரு ருவிலே, தாயும் தந்தையுமானோய் சிரகிரித் தாயுமான தயாபரமூர்த்தியே.


    This திருவருள்சக்தி
is the Guide from the first to the last, being the nearest neighbour the warmest friend and the patient teacher. Those great ones who by life-long austerity and renunciation are fit for Instruction, resign themselves and their actions to the Mother of the Universe and witness the workings of திருவருள். It is திருவருள்
that underlies all the forces of nature. It is திருவருள் that is at the root of evolution and involution. It is that vivifies, nourishes, protects, leads, instructs and absorbs the Soul. The God of Tayumanavar is in Union with such power of Grace and Love. He is also the Form and the Formless Rupi, Ruparupi, and Arupi and beyond, குன்றாத மூவுருவாய் அருவாய்ஞானக் கொழுந்தாகி யறுசமயக் கூத்துமாடி நின்றாய். He is the seven manifestations (ஏழுமூர்த்தம்). (In passing it may be observed that the ஏழுமூர்த்தம் referred to by Tayumanavar should properly refer to those in நவந்தருபேதம், excluding விந்து
and சத்தி and not Vishnu, Indra, Brahma, Upamanyu, Sarya, Nandi and Murugan, as some Commentators would have it). His God is again the Saviour of all beings, ever ready with open arms to receive them into His Grace and guiding and directing at every step till they reach their goal. His God is to be seen in the Guru, the Linga and Sangama குருலிங்கசங்கமமாய்க் கொண்டதிருமேனி His God is also referred to as the only one Existence (Sat), the all of the Universe, but the Svami would quickly add, to avoid a mistaking of his doctrine, that He, His God, is not all. This doctrine of the all and not all, had misled some into thinking that Tayumanasvami was a believer in the Ekanmavada doctrine and they would probably approvingly quote.


    "ஆதாரவாதேயமுழுதுநீ யதலாலகிலமீதென்னையாட்டி

    ஆடல்கண்டவனுநீயாடுகின்றவனுநீ யருளுநீமெளனஞான

    தாதாவுநீபெற்றதாய் தந்தைதாமுநீதமருநீ யளவுநீகாண்".


and similar lines where one aspect of the Godhead is emphasised from a spiritual point of view. But the solution of this question is to be found in many of his hymns which, after exhausting all things nameable as God Himself, would in the same breath during that He is one of them, and that is because to a Jnani all is Sivamayam. The Svami himself explains why God is all and not all சித்தும் சடமும் சிவத்தைவிடவில்லை

i.e., if not for Siva, the soul matter cannot exist
Who am 1 if not for you ? Such expressions as பார்க்கின்றமலரூடும்நீயேயிருத்தி சுத்தமும் அசுத்தமும் - தொந்தமும் நீர்தொந்தமும் - உயிர்நீ யாக்கையுநீ etc., should be understood as the declarations of the Seers in Spiritual Communion, who see nothing but Sivasvarupa everywhere.


    Any doubt on this point will be removed by carefully noting that the Svami, in more than one place, has distinctly, said that the soul is not God, God is not soul, but that a relation exists as is between the letter ' '—the root of all sounds—and the other letters of the alphabet.


    Moreover the Svami in unmistakeable terms condemns the Ekanmavada and the Aham Parama Jnana—


    "சொல்லுக்கடங்காச் சுகப்பொருளை நாமெனவே

    அல்லும்பகலும் அரற்றுவதென் - நல்லசிவ

    ஞானமயம்பெற்றோர்கள்நாமில்லை யென்பரந்தோ



    "விளக்குந்தகளியையும் வேறென்னார் நின்னைத்

    துளக்கமறச்சிவனென்று சொல்வார்பாராபரமே".


    "வானாதிநீயெனவே வைத்தமறையென்னையுநீ

    தானாகச்சொல்வாயோ சாற்றாய்பராபரமே".


    "பன்முகச்சமயநெறி படைத்தவரு மியாங்களே கடவுளென்றிடும், பாதகத்தவரும், வாததர்க்கமிடுபடிறரும் தலைவணங்கிட"


    "நாம்பிரம்மென்றால் நடுவேயொன்றுண்டாமல்,

    தேம்பியெல்லா மொன்றாயத்திகழுநாளெந்நாளோ."


    If any further proof be necessary for determining the Svami's conception of God, at least for clearing it from any apparent inclination to Ekanmavada, it can be seen in his conception of the Soul. The Soul according to him is not the part of God, or a Spark from Him apparently or really, but an entity dependent on Him for its existence and Bliss.
அருளுடைய பரமென்றோ அன்று தானேயானுளன் - என்றுநீ அன்றுநான் உன் அடிமை
In one respect soul and God are the same, in that they are both Conscious entities as opposed to the jada—matter of Maya; but the soul is able to know only when instructed, but God is and knows by Himself. The sun sees by himself and the eye sees when illumined by the sun ; the sun is never overpowered by darkness, in fact there is no darkness at all from the point of view of the Sun but the eye is under darkness, till illumined by the rays of the sun. அப்பொருளும் ஆன்மாவும் ஆரணநூல் சொன்னபடி தப்பிலாச் சித்தொன்றாம் சாதியினால். Referring to the soul the master instructs that it is Chit, like the crystal which takes in the colours close by யாதொன்று பற்றின தனியல்பாய்நின்று, பந்தமரும் பளிங்கனையசத்துநீ, and the Lord is the Great Instructor, உன்பக்குவங் கண்டறிவிக்கும் பரன்மையேம்யாம்.


    After carefully pondering over the real nature of Atma, the Svami exclaims that it is in vain people say that the soul is Chit or அறிவு
for all along the soul has been in bondage, and but for the ray of Grace it would not ' know '


    "ஊனொன்றி நாதனுணர்த்துமதை விட்டறிவே

    னானென்றபாவிதலை நாளுநாளெந்நாளோ".


    "கொடியவாணவ வறைக்குளே, அறிவதேது மன அறிவிலாமை மயமாயிருக்குமெனை யருளினால்". God is ever free and unlimited but the soul is in bondage under the clutches of Anava. கவ்வுமலமாகின்ற நாகபாசத்தினால் கட்டுண்ட உயிர்கள் - கருமருவுகுகையனைய காயத்தினடுவிற், களிம்புதோய் செம்பனைய யான். But the Svami was prepared to call the soul அறிவு as a sort of a concession to its power to 'know' when illumined— நீயுணர்த்த நானுணரு நேசத்தாலோ, வறிவென்றே யெனக்கோர் நாமமிட்டதே


    சதசத்தருளுணர்த்த தானுணரா நின்ற விதமுற்று,

        அறிவெனும் பேர்மெய்.


    Now as regards the Universe of Maya, the Svami's conception was, undoubtedly, that it proceeds from the cause 'Maya' which exists as an entity; he was a follower of Satkaryavada which postulates the reality of the cause, as against the Idealism of Mayavada or Vivartavada. But it may be held that such expressions as, அம்மாயையில்லாமையேயாம், முற்றுமில்லாமாயை, உண்டுபோலின்றாம் உலகம், மின்மயமானசகம், அகிலமாயை, காண்முயற்கொம்பேயென்கோ, கானலம்புனலேயென்கோ, வான்முகமுளரியென்கோ, tend to show his inclination to the idealistic conception of the world. Here again it is more a misunderstanding of the true import of the words used than the ambiguity. However real the Cause may be, if the effect is subject to change, it is unreal and compared to the Never-changing Existence of God, in whom Maya and the souls are lost as are the stars in the full rays of the Sun ; the Maya of the Universe is unreal, is not, not that it actually ceases to exist but it ceases to show itself.

    Those Jnanis who are the privileged ones to see the Sivasvarupa through the Grace of Siva everywhere and in everything, again and again declare that the world is nothing, is nought before their gaze, and in their conception. The Svami himself seems to have anticipated such misunderstanding of his views and has emphatically said in what sense முற்றுமில்லாமாயை etc., are to be understood.


    வருவான்வந்தேனெனல் போல்மன்றியழியுஞ்சகத்தை

    தெரிவாகவில்லையென்ற தீரம்பராபரமே.


    It is therefore, the insignificance and the invisibility that is referred to as 'nought' by the great dues, insignificance when compared to the Vast Expanse of Sat and the invisibility,

when seen with the illumined eye
of Divine Grace.


    The way of Salvation in which the Svami believed, is strikingly efficacious and simple, மூர்த்திதலம்தீர்த்தம் முறையாய்த் தொடங்கினர்க்கு, வார்த்தைசொல்லச் சற்குருவும் வாய்க்கும்பராபரமே.


    The worship of the Manifestations of the Lord, and the pilgrimage to temples and holy waters are a preparation to receive the Holy word, from the Master. The Svami's Combat

is with the mind; his frequent reference is to the ' turbulent and mischievous mind (பொல்லாதமாமர்க்கடமனம்) which would not give him a moment's peace to rest in the Lord, கொள்ளித்தேள் கொட்டிக்குதிக்கின்ற பேய்க்குரங்காய்க் கள்ளமனம்துள்ளுவதென்கண்டே. As a result of the poison of Anava the soul seeks to assert itself 'I' 'I', and there lies the cause of all this manifold manifestations; add to this the traitorous mind which ever carries the soul away from the true path, and the senses that are entangled in the objects of pleasure ; no hope for the soul to be free from these and to know itself or the Lord. Therefore, all measures are to be directed towards the tutoring of the mind in order that it may prize what is advantages to higher life. Be above the ties of the world, says the Svami, purify the mind by austerities and penances, kindness and Love, renounce all as evanescent till the mind takes delight in things Spiritual. To stop the Modifications of the mind is the next step and this is achieved by being the witness of things மனமாயைக்குடிகெடவேண்டிற் பணியறனிற்றல்
and ceasing to assert ones individuality as distinct from the rest, then ceases the dual relation of subject and object,
முன்னி உலச்சுட்டு ஒழிதல் rest from speech and action is thus gained (மோனம்) which is the prelude to the incoming ocean of Jiiana. By whatever path one may go, the last step is Jnana, and Jnana alone (ஞானமலதுகதிகூடுமோ) where the soul stands serene as consciousness undefiled by the touch of Maya. (அசையாதிருந்துகொள் அறிவாகிநெஞ்சே). There flows the Grace of God, absorbing the illumined soul into its very Being. (அடியிணைக்கீழே யடக்கிக்கொண்டாண்டி). The goal is thus reached என்னைத்தானாக்கிக்கொண்டசமர்த்தைப்பார்தோழி. To describe this state of Perfect Bliss is to misrepresent it. சொல்லாலே சொலப்படும்மோ, சொல்லுந்தன்மை துரும்பு பற்றிக்கடல்கடக்கும் துணிபேயன்றோ. It is beyond speech and individuality, beyond time and space, not limited by day or night, endless limitless Expanse of Bliss. முற்றும் ஆனந்த நிறைவு யான்தானென்னதோன்றாது எல்லாம்விழுங்குஞ்சொரூபம்.

    கூடுதலுடன்பிரித லற்றுநிர்த்தொந்தமாய்

        குவிதலுடன் விரிதலற்றுக்

    குணமற்றுவரவினொடு போக்கற்றுநிலையான

        குறியற்று மலமுமற்று

    நாடுதலுமற்றுமேல் கீழ்நடுப்பக்கமென

        நண்ணுதலு மற்றுவிந்து

    நாதமுமற்றவகைப் பூதபேதமுமற்று

        ஞாதுருவின் ஞானமற்று

    வாடுதலுமற்றுமே லொன்றற்றிரண்டற்று

        வாக்கற்று மனமுமற்று

    மன்னுபரிபூரணச் சுகவாரிதன்னிலே

        வாய்மடுத் துண்டவசமாய்த்

    தேடுதலுமற்றவிட நிலை. That is his goal.




    It is needless to emphasize that this great Personage had a Special mission to fulfil by his advent in the most modern times and the question would be to correctly delineate the mission and its scope from what can be gathered from his life and utterances. By his life, he taught an object lesson to men of the world that it is possible in all walks of life, to be in the world and to be out of it; whether as a student or householder, as a father or husband, as a master or servant, one can, in the midst of duties incidental to the particular station of life, fix his attention on the true object of life (ஞானம்) வந்தவரவைமறந்து, மிக்க மாதர் பொன்பூமி மயக்கத்திலாழும், இந்தமயக்கையறுக்க.


    He taught also that all stages of life, Brahmachari toSanyasi, can be successfully passed in these days of materialised activities, if one is fortified with the purely religious qualities of the heart. He emphasised and exemplified that it is not learning but living that brings Peace and Bliss and that to be above the desires of the flesh is to plant one's feet firmly on the Spiritual ladder. He had proofs that the man who would go forward into the realm of the Spirit must renounce all of the flesh, by firmly rejecting the overtures of a queen of beauty and glands, for he knew that he who would see Cod must not interpose between himself and God, the putrid flesh of Maya. They see God, who do not fall a victim to the side

glances of tempting women. What a great gulf between ourselves, who with lustful eyes, gaze at a passing dame, and the great one who, with watchful eyes, escapes from the snares of the woman's glance. This was his great strength in life, and he, by example showed the world the secret of one's greatness.


    But these are, it may be said, features to be found in the lines of all true Jnanis. His special feature was the bridging of the yawning gulf between practical religion and abstruse philosophy. He gave Life to philosophy in order that it may appeal to the heart and be inviting to the thirsty soul. Dry Philosophy blossomed forth, at his hands into the cool shade of the Grace of God and the life-giving nectar of Bliss, to ease the weary pilgrim of Life. In short he was the popular commentator of the Higher Truth of Existence as postulated in the noble Saiva Religion. His Mission was to redeem Saiva Religion from the crude Siddhantists who would drag it into dualism and the erring Vedantists who would push it into monism to cut the golden mean of Vedanta Siddhanta—the Truth. His mission was to hold up the path of jnana as the portal to Bliss Everlasting and to point out the greatness and the glory of the Saiva Religion which recognises the workings of the Grace of God, at all times and climes, in

all religions and creeds.


    வேறுபடும் சமயமெல்லாம் புகுந்துபார்க்கின்

    விளங்குபரம்பொருளேநின் விளையாட்டல்லால்.

    மாறுபடுங்கருத்தில்லை முடிவின்மோன

    வாரிதியினதித்திரள்டோல் வயங்கிற்றம்மா.


    His Mission was the rousing of the Spirit of Tolerance, so that Love which is the Being of God Himself may be felt and tasted even m this life amidst the diversity of minds and hearts. And finally to receive all with open arms into his household to enable them to taste of the Ambrosia of Siva Bogam without restriction. He called to the world to lose no time in the lower stages of thought but to come straight away into the path of the Saiva Religion and partake of the over-flowing Bliss of Sivasayujya; indirectly commanding his followers to go forth and preach the noble Religion to all those who have ears to hear காகமுறவு கலந்துண்ணக்கண்டீர் சேரவாரும் செகத்தீரே.


    To pay a fitting tribute to this great Saint, Poet and Philosopher, my words are feeble. To love him and honour him, and to spread the Light he lit, is the duty of those who meet at this spot Sacred to his memory. He lives here and elsewhere to inspire and instruct those who would continue his mission. Frail mortals know not his power, but those with the divine spark shining within, will feel the working of His Spirit, unified in the Great Being; Glory to the land of his birth; Glory to the land of his Samati; Glory to his Religion, the Vedanta Siddhanta Saivam.



R. S. S.


Monday, February 21, 2011

 01.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 1 (JUNE 1897 - MAY 1898)
02.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 2 (JUNE 1898 - MAY 1899)
03.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 3 (JUNE 1899 - MAY 1900)
04.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 4 (JUNE 1900 - MAY 1901)
05.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 5 (JUNE 1901 - MAY 1902)
06.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 6 (JUNE 1902 - MAY 1903)
07.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 7 (JUNE 1906 - MAY 1907)
08.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 8 (JUNE 1907 - MAY 1908)
09.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 9 (JUNE 1908 - MAY 1909)
10.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 10 (JUNE 1909 - MAY 1910)
11.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 11 (JUNE 1910 - MAY 1911)
12.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 12 (JUNE 1911 - MAY 1912)
13.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 13 (JUNE 1912 - MAY 1913)
14.    Siddhanta Deepika Volume 14 (JUNE 1913 - MAY 1914)


Saturday, February 5, 2011




Latent Light Culture,Tinnevelly Bridge.

    Slowly out of the ruins of the past - like a young fern frond uncurling out of its brown litter the wonderful and mystical truths of Occultism, the buried and forgotten treasure of India are now transforming, in the modern light, into scientific truths and principles.

    I see a new life arise with the twentieth century and that inventive, enterprising, and far-seeing nation - the Americans have begun to get glimpses of our Vedas, Shastras and Puranas and are trying to put into practical use what we have muddled and thrown into our homes as useless, blinded by the materialistic views of the so-called civilisation of the present day.

    Man is born good and it is only his surroundings that mould his character in his future life. Even a spoiled character can best be transformed into one of supreme excellence by the aid of the 'Will.' Now by developing this will, man can, not only control his moral nature to any extent, but also bring into action or realise very extraordinary states of mind, that is, faculties, talents or abilities which he has never dreamt of to be within his power of realisation. Yet the stupendous power has been never grasped fully, by any, from the beginning of the time to the present day - not even by the rishis, sages and fakirs of Ind except by a very selected and gifted few. All that man thinks as mystic, supernatural and superhuman and that which lies in an invisible world is within him and in his reach. The key that will unlock this mystery is nothing but his Will.

    It has been repeatedly said and written by various men that it is marvellously good and desirable to have a strong mind and that one has simply to assert his will to gain anything. But unfortunately the 'how to do it' has hitherto been a mystery, as what was known to the adepts of India were hitherto jealously guarded with the proverbial Indian mystification.

    We shall, as far as possible and consistent with the ties we have formed, try to put the practical side of the question in this short article.

    Now when you enter the realm of practice, to control or strengthen the will, the first thing you have to do is to develop Attention and Interest. We shall now treat of Attention and Interest as it gradually leads to the development of will. The popular belief is that Interest is a special, heaven-sent gift and not one that can be acquired by human efforts. Interest cannot be created in one unless one strictly adheres to the social precept "listen politely and patiently." Such an enforced action deliberately trains you to acquire a shrewd intelligence. This enforced fixing of your mind is nothing but fore-thought. This in turn leads to attention and a firm determination. Gradually this attention develops interest in you. Attention is closely allied to memory. Without "memories" the matter we gather from continued attention will vanish. At times, whether we will or no, the memory of various actions and scenes are thrust upon as incessantly; and the want of concentration and strong will to resist unwelcome thoughts compel you to view the case in its various moods. Though you have sufficient time to deliberate upon it, yet the recurrence of the thing at every turn you take, makes you give it a worth and importance however trivial and unimportant it is. This is the gist of the power and effect of suggestion and a great secret of the trade. You know pretty well that one of the important sources of success to any business is continued advertisement. By the continued appearance of any matter in a newspaper or magazine, you are forced to read what it is and your successive readings create a desire in you to try the efficacy of the thing advertised. Thus without actually knowing or being in need of a thing, you go in to invest an amount in the purchase of the thing and the advertiser is no doubt by your purchase benefited though the thing bought is of no immediate use to you.

    Thus in the same way that pernicious habits are cultivated in our young men and they become as the usual phrase goes "as second nature." These habits by a mere effort of the Will can best be set aside and peace of mind and even of body obtained. The power of the mind acts beautifully even on the physical body of which we shall treat in extensor in another place.

    The great drawback with the general public is that they ignore the easy manuals on the impression that a mere collection of rudiments cannot have much in it. They forget that out of small that great things arise. Just a little attention before a thing is attempted, eases every burden and lightens every toil. As fore-thinking is the initiatory stage of hypnotism, that hypnotism can be successfully used to train the attention of persons habitually inattentive, though fore-thinking is in itself sufficient as both hypnotism and fore-thinking are gradual persuasion of the nervous system yet the former acts more forcibly, impresses and creates a deep rooted idea.

    Even in such an advanced state when the effects of hypnotism are widely known, many suffer from various causes of ill-health pertaining to the nervous system which could be set aside by mere effort of the will or by the aid of the hypnotic operator. Under such circumstances it is always advisable to accustom any such moral invalid to being hypnotised or willed a few times into a calm self controlled state.

    It has been experimentally proved that if one determinedly wills that an image, an idea or a thought conceived must recur or return at a certain future time, it returns correct and true to the time fixed. This especially can be easily tested by having an aim in view when one goes to sleep. When you wake up the first idea that comes across, is the particular one you wished to have.

    This kind of recurrence can greatly be facilitated by resolving to begin a task, with a little fore thought or fore-thinking process. This leads us to think that there is some magic virtue in sleep and it is known to preserve culture and ripen our mental activities. The time-honoured saying "sleep over the resolve and night brings counsel" proves this.

    This is a kind of Auto Hypnosis. Here it may be remarked that this sleep need not necessarily be a hypnotic one. Here ordinary sleep also works on similar lines, but its powers are limited; whereas the hypnotic sleep has unlimited powers and possibilities vested in itself.

    The Awakening of the will is a very interesting feature in the life of man. All life is purposeful and equally important. Every man has his own aims, ambitions and aspirations, and no man is ushered into existence whose work is not born with him. There is always work and tools in him to work withal, but some never care to utilize them in their life. They always fail in whatever they undertake, not because of their incapacity to succeed, but because of their indifference. They are duly paid for their negligence some time or other in life.

    Not so the man who succeeds' - the man of influence, or power. He has an important aim in life; he possesses the aptitude and perseverance to attain his goal, and the main secret of success lies in the fact that he is ready to avail himself of the opportunities which present themselves on his way. This is the man of will. He comprehends what is good and what is wrong. The more he learns of things in general, the more he aspires knowledge and, the more he understands how to select things, that bring success and the secret lies in the nature of 'choice' too and upon that depends his success or failure.

    The main key to every individual is his own thought force. Thought is the emanation of mind at work. The working of the human mind is the most marvellous activity known. The belief or the thought which one cherishes about oneself determines the nature of one's activities. He who cares to attain success in life, should first assume that he can do things. He must not be discouraged by failures. There is really no such thing as shame resulting in an honest attempt. His failure not only brings him knowledge but also experience, which repays him for his effort sometimes more richly than would have been the case had he succeeded in obtaining that which he aimed at. Every success is more or less the overcoming of failures. The noble Jesus taught the world that all things are possible to him that believeth. Believing what? Believing in "oneself". This believing in oneself of one's own powers is termed self confidence. A person who lacks self confidence, can with all safety develop it through the will. In the cultivation of self confidence, it is a good plan to affirm to oneself "I can", which is easily done by holding the idea and picturing within oneself that one is powerful enough to do anything and everything.

    A persistent affirmation that you do possess the qualities which are requisite for your success, and that you can develop them to their utmost capacity, aids wonderfully in acquiring the desired possession. If you lack courage or if you are a coward in some part of your nature, gradually begin to brace up your weak point by daily mental exercise based upon sound and systematic principles of science. Like an actor assume the part you would play with all the strength of your inner being, until you actually live his life and are surrounded by his atmosphere.

    Experienced actors tell us that they feel the characters they impersonate; that if they act the part of noble and heroic souls, they actually feel the noble impulses and the strong current of heroism assumed. On the other hand when they are playing a mean contemptible part they feel mean and debased.

    From the above you see that there is everything in assuming firmly and persistently the part you wish to play in life. Resolve and believe that you are noble, vigorous and strong. Never for an instant allow yourself to think that you are weak, mean and contemptible. When you continue exercising on the mental lines suggested above, after a time you will feel yourself in its full power within you and that will in its course retain the mental attitude as a permanent factor in your life. When I look about me what do I see? I see the great mass of people discontented with their present regime of life, and I cannot but help appreciating the necessity for a change in the mental state. The real cause of this depraved condition is the lack of knowledge on the part of the average individual as to the right method of controlling his mental machine.

    There is need today for intelligent, thoughtful consideration of the great questions that crowd upon us for attention and solution. A man is of the greatest value to the race when he becomes a centralised individual, fully developed in himself and equal to assuming his own responsibilities.

    As is well said in the beautiful words of Ridpath - the historian, "when liberty is born man's limbs are unbound; he straightway begins to flourish, to triumph, to be glorious. Then indeed he sends up the green and blossoming trees of his ambition. He grows in freedom, his philanthropy expands, his nature rises to a noble stature, he springs forward to grasp the great substance, the shadow of which he has seen in his dreams. What men want, what they need, what they hunger for, what they will one day have the courage to demand, is a freer manhood and more knowledge and intelligence. The right of free thought, free enquiry, and free speech to all men, everywhere, is as clear as the noonday and bounteous as the air and sea."

    What do you think is the basis for attaining this much coveted liberty? It is nothing but a firm determination and the mighty secret of the power of the will.





Monday, January 31, 2011


Extracts from Vishnu Bhagavata Purana with Notes.



    Satva, Rajas, and Tamas, thus there are three gunas of Prakriti; united with these, one Supreme Person (Para-Purusha) bears for the sake of the creation etc., of this (universe) the names respectively Hari, Virinchi and Hara. Of these, man can seek welfare from the satva-embodied one (satva-tanu) - ii. 2.3.


    The Para-Purusha is distinguished form the Trimurtis; and the Purana is evidently intended for setting forth the glories of the Satvamurti.

    Asvaththama ran for his life "like the Sun out of the fear of Rudra" or according to another reading "like Brahma out of the fear of Rudra". vii. 18.

    When the astrologers cast the horoscope of Parikshit they said "He would resemble Girisa (Siva) in Prasada (grace) xii. 24.


    The word Prasada is used in ancient literature in connection with the grace shown by Lord Siva to his chosen devotees.

    When Arjuna remembers his past glories he says "the trident-holder, Lord, with the daughter of Himavat, being pleased, bestowed on me, his own weapon (Pasu-patastra). xv. 12.


    One desirous of Vidya (knowledge or wisdom) should worship Girisa' one desirous of obtaining a good life partner, should worship Uma, the chaste. iii. 7.


    Vidura puts the particular question to Uddhava, when he returns from Dvaraka after the departure of Sri Krishna from the world, thus 'Is Samba doing well, who is the beneficent son of Hari, handsome, who is the first among the charioteers, and whom Jambavati had brought forth by observing vows (to Siva), as Ambika, the divine guha (Subrahmanya) in olden days." i. 30.


    The question is important as showing that the Yadava race was destroyed through the instrumentality of Samba who had the destructive amsa of Lord Siva, as anyone who performs this function receives His amsa for the time being vide XI-2, 14 to 16 verses.

    When Brahma was not satisfied with his Tamasa creation, he next created the four mind-born sons, Sanaka etc., and told them to create the beings. When they refused to obey his orders he was angered beyond control but tried to restrain it. Though he controlled it by his intellect, from the centre of the eye-brows of the Prajapati, his anger sprang forth as the young Nilalohita (Rudra) ............. xii. 7.

    Him again Brahma requested to undertake the function of creation. Thus, requisitioned the Lord Nilalohita began to create, being by nature Satva many like unto himself. Thus Brahma seeing many Rudras created, asked him to stop the creation. xii. 13, 14 and 16.


    This story occurs in every Purana, whenever Brahma attempts creation, which shows that without Rudra neither creation nor protection can go on.

    Maricha admonishes his wife (Diti) when she presses him to satisfy her lust in Pradosha time (evening) thus "In this Sandhya time, oh chasteful one, the Lord the creator of beings wanders with his vehicle Vrisha (the sacred bull) surrounded by his retinue. He who constructed the Setu whose guardians are Brahma and others, on whom as the cause the universe depends, to whom Maya is the hand-maid and whose actions with pisachas are mere play". xiv, 22, 23 and 28.

    Diti praises Rudra for the safety of her womb, 'Prostrations to Rudra, the great, the Deva, the Ugra, the showerer of the desired objects, Siva, the peaceful, the ruler, the angry one. May he be pleased towards me that is related to him as his consort's sister. He is compassionate to all those who deserve compassion, especially towards the feminine sex and who is the lord of Sati (the chaste). xiv. 33, 34 and 35.


    When the Rishi Atri performed penance for the sake of getting a son, he prayed thus " I take refuge in him who is the Lord of the Universe. May he be pleased to bestow on me a son equal to me" ....... Next, the three Gods appeared before him with their respective characteristics such as, by the vehicles, bull, swan and eagle. Then Atri addresses them thus "I know you all who are assuming forms respectively according to three gunas of Maya for the sake of creation preservation and destruction of the Universe in each Kalpa and bears names Brahma, Vishnu and Girisa. I adore you all. But who is he amongst you that was invoked by me." The three replied "as is your Sankalpa, so it will happen and not otherwise. Oh Brahmin as you are a Satya Sankalpa (true determination) that which you invoked are we." i. 20 to 30.

    Vidura questions:- Why did Daksha, affectionate towards his daughter become inimical to Siva, the greatest among the virtuous, without caring for his daughter the Chaste. ii. 1.

    How can anybody be inimical to that preceptor of the Universe, the one without enmity, of calm appearance who finds bliss in himself, and who is the Supreme Deity of the world. ii. 2.

    He who for the sake of oneself, thinks harm to the Lord who is not revengeful falls away from the truth, with differentiated mind. ii. 22.

    Let the ignorant soul (Pasu) forgetting his own destiny become entangled in worldly matters ............. ii. 24.

    The fool will look upon ignorance with action as knowledge. They also who follow the reviler of Siva will continue the transmigratory life. ii. 25.

    Devi addresses Daksha:- Who excepting you will revile one, who is omnipresent, free from enmity, to whom there is neither beloved friend or foe in the world of beings and who is of a lovable nature. iv. 11.

    The wicked attribute vices to the virtuous, but, O, twice born one, men of your stamp do not do so. Great men appreciate greatly the small virtues; to them you attributed vice. iv. 12.

    The chance utterance of his name of two letters (Shiva), removes the sin of men. You, an inauspicious person revile, are such a one of pure fame and inviolate authority. iv. 14.

    The bee-like minds of the great, desirous of obtaining the honey of Brahmarasa, cling to his lotus-like feet; Such a one who is showering blessings on the needy world, who is the friend of all, you are reviling. iv. 15.

    Even Brahma and others except thee do not consider Siva (the auspicious one) as Asiva (inauspicious). * * * iv. 16.

    When the Lord, the protector of Dharma is being reviled, shutting the ears, one should clear away; if powerful, should forcibly cut off the slanderous tongue, or else should give up life. This is Dharma. iv. 17.

    I shall not keep alive this body which has sprung out of thee the reviler of Sithikantha. It is said that the only expiation for eating prohibited food, out of delusion, is to vomit the same. iv. 18.

    The discretion of the great Muni who is realising the self is not fettered by the sayings of the Vedas. * * * iv. 19.

    Sati, thinking about the honey of the lotus like feet of her husband, saw nothing else. Her body became pure and was burnt by the fire produced by Samadhi. iv. 27.

    Maitreya said:- Then all the Devas with the priests and those who had assembled there, being defeated by the armies of Rudra armed with weapons like the trident etc., with their limbs broken, prostrated before Brahma and reported all that had happened. vi. 1 and 2.

    Knowing this beforehand, the lotus-born Brahma and the all-pervading Vishnu did not resort to the sacrifice of Daksha. vi. 3.

    Having heard this, Brahma replied:- Those who seek welfare will not attain prosperity if wrong is done to spiritual beings. vi. 4.

    You have committed fault by refusing oblations to him. Take hold of his feet. He will easily be pleased. Invoke him with pure minds. vi. 5.

    Neither I, nor Yajna (Vishnu) nor you all, nor the sages, nor anybody else, know his true nature, nor his strength and power. Who will dictate means of pacifying him who is independent. vi. 7.

    Brahma, thus having instructed the Devas, proceeded from his own residence together with the Pithris and the Prajapatis to Kailasa, the best among the mountains the favourite seat of the Lord Siva, the destroyer of the three cities. vi. 8.

    That Kailasa, where those who are perfected by birth, medicines, austerities, Mantra and Yoga and also Kinnaras and others who are not human beings stay. vi. 9.


    In about 25 verses, the beauties of Kailasa are described in detail, including the big banyan tree. Even the Vaikuntha has not been described so elaborately.

    Under that tree of Mahayoga, they saw seated Siva, the refuge of those who seek salvation * * * * worshipped by Kubera and Sanandana and others who are perfected by Yoga and who possess equilibrium of mind, and who is thinking about the methods of wisdom, austerity and Yoga; who has forms desired by Tapasas; who is seated on an Asana, made of Manja grass, besmeared with holy ashes and explaining the eternal truth to Narada who was questioning while many others were also attending. That Siva who was keeping his left leg on the right knee, holding the prayer beads in his hand and exhibiting the symbol of Tharkamudra. vi. 33 to 38.

    The sages together with the regents of the eight quarters, bowed to him, who was realising in his Samadhi, the Supreme self to be attained by the highest Yoga and who is the first of all the Manus. vi. 39.

.............Brahma said:- I know thee as the Lord of the Universe as transcending matter, the seed cause, Sakti and Siva and as the eternal Brahman. vi. 42.

    Thou alone create, preserve and destroy the unvierse like a playful spider, by the effect of the union of Siva and Sakti. vi. 43.

    Those created Yajna through the instrumentality of Daksha, for the sake of obtaining the result of Dharma and Artha, you aloe were the cause of the restrictive limits (of castes and grades) which the Brahmins and others faithfully follow. vi. 44.

    You turn inauspicious actions into auspicious ones. You bestow rewards in this and other worlds when actions are done. The Evil-doers are sent to deep darkness .......... vi. 45.

    Anger generally does not influence as it does the Pasus (ignorant Souls) those whose minds are devoted to thy feet, who realise you in all beings and also want to see all beings as existing in you. vi. 46.

    Daksha when he had the head of the sacrificial animal fixed on his trunk, being looked at by Rudra, arose, at once, as if from sleep; and saw Siva before him. vii.. 9.

    The Prajapati, whose mind was confused owing to enmity to Rudra, became free from mala (impurities) like a tank in the autumn as a result of the Sight of Siva vii. 10.

    You at first created from the face the Brahmins who observe the vows of knowledge and austerities, for the sake of promulgating the truth between Brahman and Atman. O Supreme one, you are protecting those Brahmins in all dangers as the herdsman with the stick protects the Pasus. vii. 14.

    Let the Lord be pleased with himself whom I without understanding his real nature reviled in the assembly with numberless arrow-like Evil words, and who protected with gracious eyes when I fell down in consequence of my reviling the great. vii. 15.

    Vishnu addresses the revived assembly "Myself, Brahma, and Siva are the Supreme cause of the Universe, and also the Self, the ruler, the witness, the self-seer and the unconditioned. vii. 50.

    "The fool looks upon Brahma, Rudra, and other beings, as separate from the Supreme-Self, Brahman, one without a second. vii. 52.

    O Brahma, he attains peace who sees no difference amongst the three who are one in nature and who are the self of all". vii. 54.

    Maitreya says:- I heart this achievement of Lord Siva, the destroyer of Daksha's Sacrifice from my spiritual disciple Uddhava the incarnation of Brihaspati. vii. 61.

    O Parikshit, That man who after learning, repeats daily with devotion, the achievements of the Supreme ruler, which enhance fame, give long lease of life, and remove all sins, destroys sin. vii. 62.

    When the mother earth refused to yield to the workers of the field; King Prithu is said to have got angry "like the destroyer of the three cities (Siva). (See also X. 7, 29, and X. 76, 12.) - xvii. 13.

    During a horse-sacrifice performed by the King Prithu, Indra stole the horse. When the king found him out, and was about to discharge the arrows at him, Indra appeared "with matted hair and besmeared with ashes". He stayed his arrows out of respect for that holy appearance. xix. 14.

    Vidura asks: How was it possible for the Prachetas to meet Siva in person in this world, as even the sages only meditate on him, and it is difficult for the mortals to meet him? It is said that the Lord Siva delighting in himself wanders about the world with his destructive energy for the sake of its welfare .... Following the direction of their father the Prachetas proceeded northwards till they reached the Manasu Lake. (Here follows a graphic description of the Lake). They there heard divine music and saw coming towards them the three eyed Siva with the body appearing like molten gold, and with a gracious face, surrounded by the Devas. The Prachetas joyously prostrated before him. Then Rudra, the remover of the difficulties of his devotees and upholder of Dharma addresses them .... He who takes refuge in the Lord Vasudeva who is above the jiva, bound by three gunas, is indeed dear to me .....xxiv. 17 to 31.


    In the description of Bhugola it is said that the holy Bhava is the sole Deity in the Ilavrata continent. xvii. 15.


    In his battle Vrithrasura Indra appeared "Like Rudra standing with anger before Yama." x. 15.

    Chitraketu while travelling in the aerial car presented by Vishnu, came by Siva surrounded by Siddhas and Charanas. seeing Him embracing Parvati in the assembly of Munis, Chitraketu laughingky remarked. "He, the preceptor of the world, the direct promulgator of the Dharmas, among the embodied one's, the expounder of the truth of Brahman, and the observer of the highest vows, enjoys publicly the company of his wife like an ordinaty man". In answer to Chitraketu, who did not understand the real worth of Siva, Parvati spoke thus:- "His real nature is understood neither by Brahma, the sons of Brahma, Narada and others, the Kumaras, Kapila, nor Manu, such a one you are speaking of as having strayed from the path of virtue. His lotus-like feet are meditated upon by those mentioned above, he is the preceptor of the universe, and he is the auspiciousness of all auspiciousness (Mangala). Having reviled such great ones you deserve punishment .............. xvii, 4 to 12.


    The stories of the destructor of the three cities are described. x, 53 to 71.

    A number of places of pilgrimage is mentioned including Setu, Varanasi, Madura and Bindusaras, Bhuvanesvaram in Orissa. xiv, 28 to 32.


    At the time of the churning of the ocean, the churning rod, the Mount Mandara, began to sink in the ocean. The strength of all the Devas was not sufficient to raise it up. It was then discovered that "the failure to propitiate Vignesvara" was the cause of all this. vii, 8.

    In the course of the churning of the ocean, the great poison came out of it. All the Devas became helpless and ran in a body to Kailasa to seek the protection of Siva. They prostrated before him and praised him thus:- vii, 19 and 20.

    O Lord of all lords, great Lord, the Soul of all, creator of beings, protect us, who have taken refuge in thee, from the poison which burns the three worlds. vii, 21.

    You alone are the Lord of bondage and Salvation of all the worlds. The wise men worship you alone. You are the guru as well as the remover of the difficulties of the devotees. vii, 22.

    When you create, preserve and destroy the universe, with your energy, then you assume the names of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. vii, 23.

    You are the Brahman, and the Supreme Secret. You are the manifested and un-manifested. You are manifested as different energies. Thou art the Atman, the ruler of the universe. vii, 24.


    In four verses his universal form (Vira Rupa) is described. 25 to 28.

    The five upanishads viz., (1) Kaivalya, (2) Svetasvatara, (3) Atharvasirus, (4) Atharvasikha, (5) and Kalagnirudra. (These five are generally called 'five Rudras') are thy five faces ............Thy name 'Siva' is the Supreme Truth ..............vii, 29.

    O Girisa, thy Supreme Light is not attainable by Brahma Vishnu, and Indra, who are the rulers of the unvierse. vii, 31.

    O Mahadeva, we do not know anything beyond this. The manifestation of such a one as yours, whose actions are not explicit to us, is for the welfare of the world. vii, 35.

    On hearing the achievements of Siva in swallowing the great poison, Brahma, Vishnu, Parvati, and the Prajapatis, praised him. vii, 45.

    Kasyapa's wife observed the Payovrata to beget a son. Along with other prayers she addresses Siva thus .. 'Adoration to Siva, to Rudra, to the possessor of Sakti (may also be translated as Subrahmanya), adoration to the presiding deity of all vidyas, and adoration to the ruler of all beings. xvi, 32.

    At the upanayana ceremony of the boy, Vamana (incarnation of Vishnu) the holy Uma, Ambika, the Chaste, bestowed the first Bhiksha (alms). xviii, 17.


    Bhagiratha says to Ganga:- Rudra, who in the soul of all beings, and in whom the universe is woven and interwoven, like the thread in the cloth, will receive the force of your flow. ix. 7.


    The Gopastris observed the Katyavani vrata; and having an image of sand before them, worshipped Parvati by offering sandal, &c. They invoked Parvati with the following mantra. O Katyayani, O Mahamaya, Mahayogini, Adhisvari, give us Nandagopa's son as husband. xxii, 1 to 4.

    Parikshit asks Suka, how the conduct of Sri Krishna in his plays with the Gopis, can be justified. Suka answers thus: We should not judge the actions of great men by ordinary standards. Rudra drank the great posion. Can we do so? xxxiii, 31.

    Once the Gopas went to a place of pilgrimage called 'Ambikavana' and worshipped there their family deity the all pervading Pasupati and Ambika. xxxiv, 1.

    In her letter to Krishna, Rukmani refers to the custom of worshipping the family deity Girija in the day previous to the day of marriage. lii, 40.

    The actual worship of Girija is conducted in detail. liii, 25, 44 to 46.

    Bana, eldest son of Bali, is said to be a great devotee of Siva. lxiv, 3.

    In Bala Ramas pilgrimage the following, among other places, are said to have been visited. Skanda, Sri Saila, Kanchi, Vrishabhadri (Nundi durg, Dakshina Madura, Setu, Kanya, (cape Comerin) and Gokurna where there remains the spiritual influence of Dhujati for ever. lxxix, 11 to 19.


    Krishna says to Uddhava "Among the archers I am the destroyer of the three cities (Tripuraghna)" (In the Bhagavad gita he says " I am Sri Rama among the archers") xvi, 20.


    Markandeya is said to have met Rudra who instructs him not to receive with difference the three deities, Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra. x, 21.

    Vishnu's bow called Sarga is said to be Kala, (the Rudras amsa for destruction), xi, 15.