Sunday, September 26, 2010



    It is not well understood that the word 'Upanishad' really means the same thing as the word 'Yoga'. Yoga means the sadana required for bringing the soul and God in union; and Upanishad is also the teaching of the Sadana whereby man can come nearer and nearer God by destroying the bonds that bind him. The root meaning (Upa-near, ni-quite, sad-to perish) is hit off to a nicety in the famous line in Tiruvachakam, வாய்த்தேய்ந்து தேய்ந்து ஒன்றும், "nearer and nearer to Thee I drew, wearing away atom by atom, Till I was One with thee."

    And in the passage we quote below, and in several others, the Upanishad is used as a synonym for yoga. And this derivation really explains the scope of an Upanishad, a misunderstanding of which has led to no end of confusion. The Siddhanti takes the Upanishad as the text book of the Yoga-pada or school. And the other padas are Sariya-pada, Kriya-pada, and Gnana-pada. And the bavana or sadana is peculiar to each. The bavana in the Sariya pada (Dasamarga) is that of master and servant; in the Kriya-pada (Satputra-marga) that of Father and son; in the Yoga-pada, (Saha-soham marga), that of friend and friend (or equal and equal) and in all these bavana, there is duality (consciousness of duality); and in the gnana-pada, there is no duality (consciousness of duality). Whatever, there is complete blending as that of lover and loved; though love is also the requisite in the other bavanas. In Yoga, the soul by lovingly contemplating that God and himself area saha, equals, or identical, (Soham) approaches the truth nearer and nearer, and as its fruition, it reaches a stage the Sannyasa Yoga, when it can hardly recognize any individuality of its own (நான்கெட்டு) blends itself so well into the Bliss that it dedicates (as Arpana, Sivarpana) all its acts to God, then its bonds are sundered, and it is exalted into the Highest Bliss. Perhaps there is just a little consciousness as the Yogi passes into the gnani, and it is during this moment, the Yogi breaks out into that paean of Triumph, "I am all; I am Brahman, the secondless" (mantras 18 to 22). In the preceding mantra, (17), the Yogi is actually practising "Soham Bavana" and carrying out what he was taught to do by his Guru (mantra 16). 16th mantra is further identical with 8 sutra of Sivagnanabotha, 17th mantra with 9th sutra 18 to 22 with 10 sutra. And Yoga pada or Upanishad stops so gar; and does not go further. And seeing that these Upanishads, almost every one of them, end with this "Soham" doctrine, we identify Vedanta with Yoga-pada, and distinguish it from Siddhanta or Gnana- whose postulate is contained, not in the Upanishads but in the Agama, 11 sutra of Sivagnanabotha (see sutra) And it is one of the principles of sound teaching, that in the various lower stages though we deal only with symbols (bavana) of Truth, and not with absolute truth, the learner cannot be told that that is only a symbol and not the Truth, and he has to be taught to believe in the teacher who puts its forward as absolute Truth; though a caution now and then is absolutely essential, so as not to lead the learner altogether astray. And it is the form in which the teachings of the respective Pada have been set forth that have misled people into mistaking the symbol (bavana or sadana) for the Truth. In the Madhwa system, the bavana of master and servant have become petrified or dogmatic; in Christianity, the sat-putra Marga, (Father-hood of God and brother hood of man) has become petrified (dogmatic); in the Maya-vada, the saha (soham) Marga has become petrified; People will care to understand the difference we have here attempted to draw between the true Vedanata (not the petrified or dogmatic Vedanta of the Maya Vadis) who really understand the difference between Yoga and Gnana. Dogmatism has entered even among Saivas; and we have among them the School of Siva-Sama Vadis, to which Srikanta (the true Vedanti) belongs; and two such eminent persons asa Gnanapragasa Swamigal and Sivagnana Swamigal have crossed their lances in this fight.

    A genuine scholar and aspirant after Yoga like the late learned Editor of the Saddarshana Chintanika has just a fair perception of the differences we have above explained; and in his Commentary on the Vedanta Sutras, he expresses himself to the following effect. He points out that the main body of the sutras of Vyasa, and texts of Veda support and maintain the doctrine of the essential difference of the Human spirit and the Supreme spirit and in following them, he says Madhwacharya and Ramanujacharya are right; but there are other clear texts also which affirm as positively "That Thou art', "Tattwam Asi,' I am God,". "Aham Brahmasmi" &c., one for each Veda; and he says that the last two Acharya attempt no explanation of these texts; whereas Sankaracharya simply adopts them. But Sankara does not himself explain the previous sets of sutras and texts. "All these four interpreters find it equally easy to graft their systems on the Brahma Sutra, the general style of which seems at first sight to admit of different interpretations. But all these Acharyas find it hard to offer consistent interpretation of some Sutras. Under these circumstances, they are compelled to over strain and to propose farfetched interpretations, for making Badarayna conform to their doctrines." (p.206). He however thinks that this is no case for despair and that there must be consistent explanation forthcoming; and the following explanation he gives as his own, though the real truth has been with the Siddhanta School ever so long.

    "What is to be done? There are doubtless a few texts in the Veda which support Pantheistic views. Most, however, support the Theistic principles. But so long as Pantheistic texts are not explained, the proposition that the Vedas do not teach Pantheism cannot be accepted. Again, the adjustment and interpretation of these proposed by the Theists cannot be accepted, because of their being far-fetched and forced. But we do not see how the few Pantheistic texts come in the way of Theism, because we believe that though they be interpreted as the Pantheists do, yet they support Theism. How can this be? The essence of the Dualistic doctrine is adoration (bhakti). While engaged in adoration, the mind discovers two states-the one consisting in being intent upon serving the Lord, in doing that which He approves, in offering to Him the best things one has, and in obeying His commands. Thus as good parents are to be served by a child in the same manner God is to be served and worshipped by his servants. This kind of worship includes all the nine sorts of adoration mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana. 1. Exclusively listening to the praises of God, 2. exclusively singing His praises, 3. remembering and constantly thinking of them, 4. falling at His feet, 5. worshipping him, 6. His adoartion, 7. exclusive devotion to Him, 8. constant association with Him, 9. laying one's sorrow or happiness before Him, 9. laying one's sorrow or happiness before Him. But there is a special feature of such adoration - a feature not included in any of these. It is the ecstatic condition of the spirit - a condition which can neither be explained nor understood without an illustration. Let the reader realise the love a mother has for her child. A mother or her child sometimes experiences a state of mind - an indescribable state. That which either of them expresses can alone convey an idea of their feelings when they are in the ecstatic condition. The mother directly addresses the child thus: - "Oh my piece of gold - oh, my soul, oh, my life - can I eat you up?" Under these circumstances, the mother forgets that her body is different from that of her child which experiences the same feeling. Such an identity is the form of the ecstatic condition of the mind. This is a special feature of adoration. This sort of ecstatic identity the Yogis feel. Hence there are such worshippers. The life of Jesus Christ can be referred to in this place as described in (14-20) of the Gospel of John. It is this: "At that day ye shall know that I am in my father, and he in me, and I in you." * [* Our Christian friend showed us how he had noted against this text, the reference in Pattinattar's Hymns. Saint Thayumanavar thus reverently speaks of this famous text also.


    முனக்குணானென்று வுறுதிகொள்வதென்னாளோ."


Though a thorough Dualist or Dvaita, Jesus expressed himself in this way. His utterances can be easily explained when this ecstatic condition of mind is understood. Hence in the Vedas and in the Upanisads, the Pantheistic doctrine of the identity of the human and Supreme Spirits if enunciated is enunciated in this way. Again the Brahmasutra of Badarayana does not inculcate it."

    And he states below that the Yoga is the backbone of the Vedanta. And it must be clear to everybody, that in the ordinary yoga, in soham bavana, and even when the perfect Yogi bursts forth into the paean, "I am all," there is thought, consciousness dualism, and it is only when this consciousness ceases, there is perfect Nirvana and Advaita Bliss. And so it is, that a true saint like Thayumanavar, says that Sariya, Kriya, and Yoga was enough for him, as this will lead to Gnana. And does not the excellence of the Siddhanta system consist in that it embraces all the four-fold path of Sariya, Kriya, Yoga and Gnana ("சன்மார்க்கமுதலாம் தாதமார்க்கத்தளவும் தன்மார்க்கமான வெங்கள் சம்பந்தன்.") and the Four Geat Teachers, Appar, Sambanthar, Sundarar and Manickavachaka acted out the Four Paths for our guidance and following, though they were the greatest Gnanis; and the Siddhanti could without the least hesitation kneel before his maker and say, "O my master show mercy to thy slave. ஆண்டவனே* அடியேனுக்கருள் செய்"; [* The Tamil Mahomedans invariably use the word "ஆண்டவன்," when speaking of God, and the Tamil Christians, "பிதா."] O my Father, my Mother," O my Life, My Self, My Love," And this Four-fold path, in what books do they find mention and full exposition? And in this fact of Broad Universalism, lies the reason of our attitude towards all other religions and if we criticize at all, it is not in any carping and fault-finding spirit; but simply because we equally accept the Kantian dictum, that "the greatest and perhaps the sole use of all philosophy of Pure Reason is after all mostly negative, since it serves not as an organ on for the enlargement of knowledge, but as a discipline for its delineation, and instead of discovering truth, has only the modest merit of preventing error;" and we have already pointed out how useless it is to refer to one's own experience, when we theorize and philosophize and proceed to condemn as unsound another's doctrine whether it be dualism, or non dualism, materialism or spiritualism.

    We began by saying that Upanishad and Yoga means the same thing; and this Kaivalya Upanishad may be said to be the Upanishad of the Yoga School and it well sets forth the nature of Dhyeyah, (God) Dhyatah (soul) and Dhyana or mode of contemplation, and the fruit of such contemplation. And Sri Nilakantacharya quotes mantras 5 and following as the illusttative text under. 4-1-7 (Brahma sutras), ('Asinnasambhavat') and this upanishad will as such be older than Badarayana's sutras. This is also ranked as one of the Pancha Rudram, the others being Swetaswatara, Atharva sikha, Atharvasiras and Kalagni rudram. Atharva sikha will appear in our next.




1.    Then A's'valayana approached Lord Parameshthi and addressed him thus:

1. Narayana's commentary - 'Parameshthi': Brahma: so called because he occupies the highest place in creation.

Sankaranada's commentary - Like a mother who wishes to give something good to her children, this s'ruti introduces the story of one A's valayana in order to instil into the minds of students faith in the authenticity of Brahmavidya.

'Then': Atha; this is an auspicious term with which a treatise is begun as a benedicton; 'then' means after attaining the four fold qualifications (Sadana chatushtaya) which are Sine qua non for initiation into the Vedanta Sastras. 'A's'valayana' is the Acharya of the Rig-veda.

2.    "Please teach me, O Lord, that Brahmavidya which is the highest of (sciences), which is always practised by the wise, and is concealed, knowing which the learned soon get rid of all sins and reach the Person who is beyond (Param).

2. Sankaranada's commentary - 'Lord': Bhagavan; one who possesses Aishwaryam, Viryam, Yasas, Sri, Gnanam, Vairagyam. 'Brahmavidya': Brahman is beyond time and space, and is not attached to things of the world. It is beyond argument and illustration. 'Vidya' : science which develops Buddhi, the cause of the direct realization of Brahman. 'The wise' are those that do not identify their selves with their bodies - those that are free from Dehatma abhimana. They always practise Brahmavidya; ever retain it in their hearts. 'Concealed': A'tman exists in all beings, and yet is veiled from the creatures by Avidya.

    'All sins': the effects of ignorance and impressions of past karma. Ignorance and Samsara are the sources of misery and all pains. 'Beyond Para': Para is the unmanifested cause of the universe. Brahman is even beyond that Para.

3.    To him the Pitamaha replied:

3. Sankaranada's commentary - 'To him': to the student who is at thirst to be initiated in Brahmavidya; here it is A's'valayana. 'Pitamaha' : grandfather; Brama the lotus-seated, is so called because he is the father of Daksha and other Rajapatis who are the progenitors of the human race.

4.    It is by the unity of faith, (sraddha) devotion (bhakti) and meditation (Dhyana Yoga) that thou knowest. Not by Karma, nor by progeny, nor by wealth; but by renunciation, (tyaga), some attained immortality.

4. Sankaranada's commentary - 'Meditation' : continuous flow of particular thoughts uninterrupted by extraneous or contrary ones. 'Karma' : actions enjoined in s'ruti (the Vedas) and in the Smritis (Dharma Sastras). 'Wealth': possessions either celestial or terrestrial. 'By renunciation' by giving up all actions whether ordained by S'ruti or by Smriti; by rising above Karma to the Paromahamsa stage which is the highest order of Sannyasa. 'Some': some Mahatmas versed in the traditional lore.

5.    That which is dwelling in the cave of the supreme Akasa and is radiant, that the Yatis enter who are possessed of a firm conviction resulting from a knowledge of the Vedanta and whose minds are purified by Sanniyasa-yoga. All these go to the world of Brahma (Supreme Being) at the end of Para's life and they are liberated from all bonds and become immortal.

5. 'Go first to the world of Brahma': notwithstanding their qualifications to attain Brahmna itself, supposing they do not reach Brahman while in this body, they go first to the plane of manifested Brahma (Karya Brahma) and remain there till the end of that Kalpa and then reach Suprem Brahman.

6.    Retired to a lonely place, seated (there) in a comfortable posture, pure, with his neck, head and trunk erect;

7.    Observing Atyasrama-Vrata, with all his senses under restraint, prostrating himself with devotion (in reverence) to his Guru, directing his attention to the lotus of his heart which is devoid of passion and highly purr; (thus) is the self-effulgent (centred) without sorrow.

8.    (Who is) unthinkable and unmanifested; (whose) forms are infinite; who is (S'iva) peaceful, immortal and all-pervading, and who is the cause (of all); and, who has no beginning, nor middle nor end; who is one and omnipresent; who is chit and Ananda; who is without forms and wonderful.

8. Sankaranada's commentary - 'S'iva': the form of beneficance. 'Peaceful, devoid of the fault of Avidya.

9.    Uma's spouse, (Umasahaya) the supreme Lord (Parameshwara) who is powerful (Prahbhu); the three-eyed and beneficent Nilakantha; by meditation, a Muni reaches Him who is the origin of all beings, the witness of all and passes beyond Tamas.


10.    He is Brahma, He is S'iva, He is Indra, He is imperishable, supreme and self-luminous. He is Himself Vishnu. He is Prana, He is Kalagni, He is the moon.

11.    He is all, - what is past and what is to pass, and eternal Knowing Him one crosses death. There is no other path to liberation.

12.    He who sees the Supreme being (as residing) in all beings, and all beings in the Supreme reaches the supreme Brahaman. There is no other method (than the above).

13.    With the soul for Arani (a wood) and Pranava for the churning rod, by the continual churning of knowledge, the wise sunder the noose.

14.    'It is He,'* (Jivatma and not the Supreme soul) with his self bewildered by Maya, that takes hold of a body and does everything; and it is he that enjoys the diverse objects, women, food, drink, &c., - in the waking condition.

14. Sankaranada's commentary - 'It is He': although unattached to worldly objects, it is He (Jivatma) and none but Him. 'Maya': Avidya, possessing the two-fold functions of A'varana (veiling) and Vikshepa (producing modification of mind). 'Enjoys': feels the pleasure and pain.

[* Our sastry and those whom he follows would take this 'He' as identical with the supreme Soul; but how they could reconcile Brahman who gets his senses bewildered by maya, ('dargged and constrained' as the Gita puts it) it is difficult to conceive. But it is more reasonable to hold that the mantra above having stated how the wise man sundered his noose, the next mantra and mantras 15 and 16 should proceed to describe the nature of man and his bond. Mantra 17 shows whence the material bodies evolve and resolve the next mantra prescribes the Tatvamasi Sadana or Bavana. 19th mantra, the Palan of following the sadana, and the following mantras the condition of the freed soul, who could say like Vamadeva, I am all, which is interpreted by Sri Nilakanta as follows. "Or thus: When, by the contemplation of the harmonious nature of Brahman and A'tman brought about by Vedantic knowledge, Vamadeva attained to the state of Brahman and was freed from all the imaginary limitations due to the identifying of himself with the human body and so on, and his mighty ego expanded so as to embrace the whole universe, he saw that he was present everywhere and accordingly spoke of himself as one with the whole universe including Manu and Surya. So. it may be concluded, it was in the case of Indra. In the passage "I am Prana, the consicious Atman," Prana refers to Para-Brahman, in as much as He, blissful by nature, is the cause of all life, as said in the s'ruti "Prana is the conscious self, the Bliss, undecaying and immortal." Accordingly it is from the standpoint of Brahman that Indra taught " I am Brahman," "Me do thou worship" So, too, Krishna taught to Arjuna, and so several others."]

15.    In the dreaming condition, the state in which everything is created by his own Maya, the same Jiva enjoys pleasure and pain. During sleep when everything is immersed in sushupti, he (the Soul) is blissful being overpowered by Tamas.

15. Sankaranada's commentary - 'Dreaming condition': the svapna state when all the senses retire. In the waking state the senses perceive the external objects, while in dream Jiva himself creates the objects by his own Maya, in his own mind. 'Sleep': in sushupti i.e., during sound sleep Jiva perceive nothing - neither the external objects of the world as in jakrata nor the creations of his own mind as in svapna. The difference between Sushupti and Moksha is in the former he is veiled by Avidya, while in Moksha there is no such impediment.

16.    The same Jiva again returns to the dreaming state (from sushupti) as he is entangled in his previous actions, and then to the waking state.

16. Sankaranada's commentary - 'Three cities': gross, subtle and causal (here ajnana) bodies.

17.    He is the support, is Bliss itself, the fountainhead of knowledge, in whom the three cities are merged. From Him originate Prana, Manas and all the senses, ether, air, light, water and earth which is the support of all.

17. Narayana's and Sankaranada's commentary - 'The Support' : the Turiya or the fourth state is here referred to. 'From Him' : from the Turiya, the seer of Buddhi. Prana : energy : Kriyasakti. 'Manas' ; stands for Jnanasakti.

18.    That which is Supreme Brahman, the soul of all, the support of everything; (that which is ) great, subtler than the subtlest, and eternal is) indeed yourself, (soul) and yourself (soul) is that Supreme soul.

19.    That which appears as the universe consisting of waking, dreaming and sleeping states, &c., - recognising it to be (in the light of) 'I am Brahman' one is freed from all bondages.

20.    Object of enjoyment, enjoyer, and enjoyment in the three states, - from these I am different; (I am) the witness, Consciousness; and I am Sadas'iva.

21.    In Me everything originated; in Me everything established; and in Me everything merges. That non-dual Brahman am I.

22.    I am subtler than the subtle, likewise big; I am the various worlds; I am the ancient. the Spirit, the Lord; I am golden, I am S'iva.

23.    I am without hands and without feet, and possess unthinkable energies. Without eyes I see, without ears hear. (Everything) I know distinctly. Independent of me there is no knower. Ever I am Consciousness.

24.    It is by the many Vedas that I am to be known. I am the author of the Vedas and I alone know them. To Me there is neither Punya (merit) nor Papa (demerit), neither impermanency nor birth; nor do I have body, senses and mind.

25.    No Earth and Water to me, no Fire, no Wind; nor ether. Thus knowing the nature of Paramatman who resides in the cavity, who is without parts and non-dual, who is the witness of (all) and is above Sat and Asat - such knowledge) leads one to pure Paramatman.

26.    He who reads the S'atarudriya become purified form fire, from spirituous liquors and from Brahmanicide; becmoes purified from all sins committed intentionally or otherwise. By (reading) this he takes rest in S'iva. He who has risen above the A's'rama (rules) should read always, - or (at least) once. By (reading) this, knowledge is got which is the cause of the destruction of the ocean of Sams'ara. Therefore knowing Him thus, the result of Kaivalya is attained, Kaivalya is attained.

26. Sankaranada's commentary - 'Satrudriya' is a chapter in Yajur-Veda in praise of Siva. 'Purified from fire by repeating this he will attain all the virtues which result from a performance of Vedic and Smarta ceremonies (relating to the sacrificial fire).



Thursday, September 23, 2010


    "Antharichchanti Thamsana Rudram Promanishaya Krinanthi Chikbahya Chacham. (Rig-Veda)."

    "Those who meditate with love on the Supreme Rudra who is within all, they eat food."

    It is a noteworthy fact that our sages have often compressed a whole philosophy in a single word or phrase. We once before illustrated how pregnant was the naming of the vowels and consonants as உயிர் and மெய்
Sareeri and Sareera, in regard to the question of the relation of God to the world. We take up to day another word which is the expansion of the same subject. This word is "Ashta Murti". It means Being having Eight Forms and is a synonym of Siva or Rudra. These Eight Forms are, Earth, Water, Fire, Airm Akas, the Sun and the Moon and Soul or Jiva or Pasu.

    By these Eight names are comprised the whole universe, both animate and inanimate. The only substance which these terms do not comprise is God; and when therefore God is spoken of by His Body, then the relation of God to the world is clearly brought out, namely that of Body and Soul, which relation, of course, we have fully explained in our article of "Mind and Body." As soul in a body, He is in everything, and hence called Viswanthariyami; and we have quoted a Rich verse above in which God (Rudra) is called Antharyami; and innumerable passages are also scattered abroad in the body of the various Upanishads. As having the universe for His form God is called Viswasorupa

    "Viswarupaya vi Namo Namaha."

    As giving rise to the whole universe from Himself He is called Viswakarana or Viswayonihi. By the same way, as we often identify our own body with ourselves, God is frequently spoken of as universe itself and is accordingly addressed as Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Sky, the Sun and the Moon and Soul.

    But there are clear passages to show that He is none of these. No one could seriously contend today that where these Upanishads identify God with some of these inanimate forms that earth or fire or any of these elements, and not the Ruler within or the Puller as He is called in Brihadaranya is really God. But the texts identifying the jiva with God has caused no amount of confusion, and these texts are quoted as standing authorities by a whole school of Indian philosophers, though texts can be quoted as frequently in which God is spoken of as different from the Jiva. As being none of these Eight and transcending all, He is called Viswadika.

    "Viswadiko Rudra," (Svetas).

    "Who of the Gods is both the source and growth, the lord of all, the Rudra, mighty seer; whoever sees the shining germ come into birth - may he with reason pure conjoin us."

    "Who of the Gods is over-lord, in whom the worlds are based, who ruleth over his creatures of two feet and four; to God, the 'Who," with (our oblation) let us worship give."

    These follow naturally the text "That sure is fire, That sun, That air, That surely moon, That verily the Bright. That Brahm, the waters That, That the Creator."

    In the previous adyaya occurs the passage "What is this all, far, far beyond, That Formless, griefless That." 'What God in fire, in water what which doth pervade universe entire. What in the plants, what in the forest lords, to Him, to God, Hail all Hail."

    "This God, in sooth, all the quarters is; long, long ago, indeed, he had his birth, he verily (is now) within the germ. He has been born, he will be born; behind all who have birth he stands, with face on every side."

    The famous passage in the seventh Brahmana, of the 3rd Adyaya, of the Brihath Aranya Upanishad, brings out a full exposition of these Eight forms of God. In the third Mantra, Earth is said to be His body -

    "Yasyaprithivi sareeram."

    "He who dwells in the earth, and within (or different from) the earth, whom the earth does not know whose body the earth is, and pulls (rules) the earth within, He is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal."

    And it Mantras, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12 and 22 the water, fire, air, sun, moon, Akasa and Vignana are respectively said to be His bodies.

    The passages are all similar to the one relating to the earth and we quote the last, however, in full.

    "He who dwells in Vignana, and within (or different from) Vignana, whom Vignana does not know, whose body Vignana is, and who pulls (rules) Vignana within, He is thy Self, the puller (ruler) within, the immortal."

    Professor Max Muller translates Vignana as knowledge, but he notes at the same time that those of the Madhyandina school interpret it as meaning the Atma or the soul; and according to the text in the samana prakarana - "yasyatma sareeram" - and from the Upa Brahmanas we will quote below, it will be seen that it is the correct interpretation.

    The other text in the Brihat-A'ranya, makes it much clearer. "God is to be seen, heard and contemplated and enjoyed in the soul. He is beyond the soul. His body is the soul, He penetrates into the recess of the soul." Nothing can be clearer than this text. This Soul and soul, this Atma and atma, this Self and self (The confusion in thought arises from the name which originally meant the human spirit being applied to the Supreme spirit also), are the two birds which dwell in the tree (human body); these are the two which "enter into the heart, the excellent divine abode" and these are the two which are in the "inside of" of the human eye. The confusion of using the same word to denote and connote two different things is really vicious, and later writings and the present day systems have dropped such uses altogether, and the beginning of such change in nomenclature, and precision in the use of words is seen in the Gita, and Atma is distinguished from Paramatma, Purusha from Purushottama or Parama Purusha. Verse 22 of Chapter 13, is a characteristic verse in this respect as it gives all these names and the true definition of Sat as distinguished from Sat-asat.

    "Spectator, and Permitter, Supporter, Enjoyer,

    Maheshwara, thus is styled Paramatman;

    In this body Parama Purusha."


    We have elsewhere observed how the sole purpose of the Puranas and Ithihasas is merely to explain the particular text of the Veda or Upanishad.The passage in the Upa Brahmana embodies the particular text and explains it.

    See how this passage, from Parasara Purana reproduces the words and meaning of the Rich text quoted above.

    "Anthrichchandiya Rudrfam Sadha Vanthayam Maneeshya

    Kruhnanthi Sihvaya thahirasa purno Amruthothakam

    Anthar Nachchantiya Ruthram Bahvanu Sahitham Sivam

    Purusha Mavakruhnanthi Sikvayathanasam Sayaha."


    The following passage from Skanda Purana also says that the jiva is the body of God.

    "Antharyami Sa Avisha jiva nam Parameshwaraha"

    "That same Parameshwara is the Antharyami in all jivas."


    Turning to Mahabarata, the statement that God has these eight objects for His body and that the universe occurs very frequently.

    We cite the following passages from the Anusasana Parva, P.C. Roy's edition:-

    "Him that hath universe for His form" page. 49.

    "Thou art the Lord of jivas" page. 133.

    "Thou hast universe for thy form" p. 105.

    "Thou art He who has the whole universe for His limbs" page. 104.

    "He pervades all things in the universe and yet is not seen anywhere" page. 50.

    "Agitating both Prakriti and Purusha by means of his energy (Sakti); He created there from the universal lord of creatures Brahmah."

    "He is both Sat and Asat."

    "He transcends both Prakriti and Purusha" page. 50.

    "Thou are He called Sat of sat." page. 127.

    "Having created all the worlds beginning with "Bhu" together with all the denizens of heavens Thou upholdest and cherishest them all, distributing Thyself into the well-known forms numbering eight." page. 96.

    The poet Kalidasa in his benedictory verse in Sakuntala explains what these eight forms are,

    I' sa' preserve you! He who is revealed

    In these eight forms by man perceptible -

    Water, of all creation's works the first;

    The Fire that bears on high the sacrifice

    Presented with solemnity to heaven;

    The Priest, the holy offerer of gifts;

    The Sun and Moon, those two majestic orbs,

    Eternal marshallers of day and night;

    The subtle Ether, vehicle of sound,

    Diffused throughout the boundless universe,

    The Earth, by sages called, 'The place of birth

    Of all material essences and things,

    And air, which giveth life to all that breathe.


    There is also this verse for which we cannot find any reference which gives eight names of God as He dwells in His eight forms.

    'Prithivyo Bava, Apach Sarvah, Agne Rudrah, Vayur Bhimah, Akasasya Mahadevah, Suryas Yograh, Chandrasya Somah, Atmanah Pasupathih."

    Note here that the word Hotri meaning the sacrificer or the Yajaman (master) of the sacrifice, stands for atma, jiva or Pasu. Hence the Lord of the pasu is called Pasupathi. (Meda Pati).

    We quote a few more passages from Mahabarata.

    "Thou art the eight Prakritis; Thou art again above the eight Prakritis, everything that exists represents a portion of Thy divine Self." page. 99.

    The following passage explains why God should multiply Himself, why He should manifest Himself into these eight forms; i.e., why God should bring about the evolution and creation of this world; not, of course, from any moral necessity connected with the doctrine of samsara; not, of course, from His will to exist and desire for enjoyment; not of course, from a desire to see His own reflection; not, of course, from a necessity to seek His own salvation; but that this evolution is necessitated for the improvement and salvation of the sin-covered soul.

    "Know O Kesava, that this all, consisting of animate and inanimate existences, with heaven and other unseen entities; which occurs in these worlds, and which has the All-pervading Lord for its soul, has flowed from Maheswara, and has been created by Him for the enjoyment of Jiva." page. 70.

    The soul, in its Kevala condition, lies in utter and hopeless oblivion, and helplessness. The Lord Wills (Ichcha sakti, that these souls should reach salvation out of His pure Grace (Arul Sakti); and by means of His own Energy (Kriya Sakti) He agitates and puts motion and life into Prakriti (Maya sakti); and Purusha (souls) and the whole of the manifested universe is brought forth from His womb. The souls in these material bodies act and gain experience and knowledge, and finally from the bondage of birth and death. Thus the souls passes through its sakala and athitha conditions; and it is the fundamental tenet of every school of Hindu philosopher that unless the soul enters the cycle of samsara, that wheel of birth and death, the soul cannot reach Mukti.

    We close this paper with a few quotations from the Dravida Suruthi bearing on the question under discussion. Our Saint Tirumular says.

    (1)     ஊனா

         சேணு வானோங்குந் திருவுரு வேயண்ட்த்

         தாணுவு ஞாயிறுந் தண்மதி யுங்கடந்

         தாண்முழு தண்டமு மாகிநின் றானே.


        The body and soul, and fire and far Spreading

        Air and space, and earth His form.

        The fixed sun, cool moon, transcending these

        Yet stands He as the stupendous world.


    (2)     எட்டுத் திசையு மடிக்கின்ற காற்றவன்

         வட்டத் திரையனல் மாநில மாகாச

    மொட்டி யுயிய்நிலை யென்னுமிக் காயப்பை

         கட்டி யவிழ்க்கின்ற கண்ணுதல் காணுமே.


        The wind that blows in eight quarters is He.

        The whirling flood and fire, huge earth and space,

        The sentient soul with these His bodily frame,

        He joins, and leaves, the God with the frontal Eye


    From our Sainted Lady of Karikal, we have the following verse.


    (1)     அவனே யிருசுடர் தீயாகா சமாவான்

        அவனே புவியனல் காற்றாவான் - அவனே

        இயமான னாயட்ட மூர்த்தியு மாய்ஞான

        மயனாகி நின்றானும் வந்து.


        Two Lights, the fire and space is He

        The earth and water, air is He.

        The soul, with these His eight forms

        He stands as Intelligence pure.


    The text of St. Maikanda Deva is that


    "God is Chit because He is omnipresent and unless He is pure Intelligence, He cannot be omnipresent. (See for further explanation. 2ns Sutra Sivagnanabotham - english edition II)


    Our Saint Pattinattar gives a most elaborate description in the following Agaval -



        பொருகடன் மேகலை முகமெனப்பொலிந்த

        ஒற்றிமாநக ருடையோயுருவின்

        பெற்றியொன்றாப் பெற்றோரியாரே

        மின்னின்பிறக்கந் துன்னுநின்சடையே

        மன்னியவண்டநின் சென்னியின்வடிவே

        பாவகன்பரிதி பனிமதிதன்னொடு

        மூவகைச்சுடருநின் நுதனேர்நாட்டந்

        தண்ணொளியாரந் தாராகணமே

        விண்ணவர்முதலா வேறோரிடமாக்

        கொண்டுறைவிசும்பே கோலநின்னாகம்

        எண்டீசைதிண்டோள் இருங்கடலுடையே

        அணியுடையல்கு லவனிமண்டலமே

        மணிமுடிப்பாந்தள்நின் தாளிணைவழக்கே

        யொழியாதோடிய மாருதமுயிர்ப்பே

        வழுவாவோசை முழுதுநின்வாய்மொழி

        வானவர்முதலா மன்னுயிர்பரந்த

        ஊனமில்ஞானத் தொகுதிநின்னுணர்வே

        நெருங்கியவுலகினின் நீர்மையுநிற்றலும்

        சுருங்கலும்விரிதலும் தோற்றம்நின்றொழிலே

        அமைத்தலுமழித்தலும் ஆங்கதன் பெயர்ச்சியும்

        இமைத்தலும்விழித்தலும் ஆகும் நின்னியல்பே

        என்றிவைமுதலா இயல்புடைவழுவினொடு

        ஒன்றியதுப்புரு இருவகையாகி

        முத்திறக்குணத்து நால்வகைப்பிறவி

        அத்திறத்கைம்பொறி அறுவகைச் சமயமோடு

        ஏழுலகாகி எண்வகை மூர்த்தியோடு

        ஊழியோடூழி யெண்ணிறந்தோங்கி

        எவ்வகையளவினிற் கூடிநின்

        றவ்வகைப்பொருளுநீ யாகியவிடத்தே.


        O Thou Dweller in Votri, which beams

        As the face of the sea-girt Earth!

        Who owns Thy form beyond compare?

        The Lightning's flash Thy locks do show

        The teeming earth, Thy Head does form.

        The Sun and Moon, and Fire, these three,

        Are Eyes that light Thy Divine Face.

        Thy cool bright wreaths are the countless stars.

        The sky where-in the gods do dwell

        Forms thy broad Chest, The eight quarters,

        Thy shoulders strong. The broad sea Thy Vest.

        Thy Organ, Earth; Feet, the worlds below.

        The flowing wind Thy constant breath

        The flawless sounds are all Thy words.

        The faultless wisdom that is together found

        In Gods and Men is all Thy own.

        The teeming world lives and developes

        Vanishes and reappears, These Thy acts.

        The world, in life or death, awake,

        Or asleep, does show Thy Nature true.

        With these Thy Form, Thy one True spirit

        Becomes dual; clothed in Gunas three,

        Art born as four; Hast senses five,

        The six Religions, and seven worlds

        Dost become and art the Eight Gods.

        And thus for ages and ages progressing

        Whatever Thou unitest with

        That Thou dost sure become.


    The following is the favourite quotation from Tiruvachakam.


    (1)    நிலநீர் நெருப்புயிர் நீள்விசும்பு நிலாப்பகலோன்

        புலனா யமைந்தனோ டெண்வகையாய்ப் புணர்ந்துநின்றா

        னுலகே ழெனத்திசைபத் தெனத்தா னொருவனுமே

        பலவாகி நின்றவா தோணோக்க மாடாமோ.


        Earth, water, air, fire, sky, the Sun and Moon,

        The sentient man, these eight forms He pervades

        The seven worlds, ten quarters, He the One,

        And Many, He stands, so, let us sing.


    Saint Tayumanavar selects the following Verse from St. Appar's Devaram for special praise in his அறிஞருரை.


    (1)     இருநிலனாய்த் தீயாகி நீருமாகி

            இயமான னாயெறியுங் நாற்றுமாகி

        அருநிலைய திங்களாய் நாயிறாகி

            ஆகாசமா யட்ட மூர்த்தியாகிப்

        பெருநலமுங் குற்றமும் பெண்ணுமாணும்

            பிறருருவுந் தம்முருவுந் தாமேயாகி

        நெருநலையா யின்றாகி நாளையாகி

            நிமிர்புன் சடையடீகள் நின்றவாறே.


        As earth, fire, water, air and Ejaman

        As moon, the sun and space, as Ashta Murti,

        As goodness, and evil, as male and female Himself the form of every Form,

        As yesterday and today and tomorrow, my Lord with the braided hair stands                                         supreme.


    The following verse of St. Appar also explains how this Being who is the greatest of the great is so small also as to be confined in ourselves.


        எட்டுமூர்த்தியாய் நின்றியலுந்தொழில்

        எட்டுவான்குணத் தீசனெம்மான்றன்னை

        எட்டுமூர்த்தியு மெம்மிறையெம்முளே

        எட்டுமூர்த்தியு மெம்முளொடுங்குமே.


        As Ashta Murti, He performs functions

        He, my Father and God, possessed of eight attributes

        He, the Ashta Murti is my Lord and Master

        He, the Ashta Murti is confined in me.


    Saint Gnana Sambanda has the following verse.


        பாரு நீரொடு பல்கதிரிரவியும் பனிமதி யாகாச

        மோரும் வாயுவு மொண்கனல் வேள்வியிற் றலைவனுமாய்நின்றார்

        சேருஞ்சந்தன மதிலொடு வந்திழி செழும்புனற் கோட்டாறு

        வாருந் தண்புனல் சூழ்சிரபுரந்தொழுமடியவர் வருந்தாரே.


        As Earth, Water, the Sun and Moon and Sky,

        The flowing Wind, bright Fire, and Hotri, He stands

        Sirapuram, washed by the scented waters of Kottar

        They who praise, they will suffer no pain.


    And St. Thayumanavar himself pertinently asks why when the earth, air &c. are spoken of by the Vedas as God Himself, why he should not himself be spoken of as God.


    (1)     பாராதி நீயாப் பகர்ந்தா லகமெனவும்

        ஆகாயுஞ் சீவனும் நீயாம்காண் பராபரமே.


    (2)    வானாதி நீயெனவே வைத்தமறை யென்னையுநீ

        தானாகச் சொல்லாதோ சாற்றாய் பராபரமே.


    Siva is also called Digvasas, Digambara, Nirvani, and He dances in Chitambara, and His person and limbs as we have seen represents each an element or portion of the universe. And this description of His we notice even from the Rig Veda downwards. As the translator of Mahabharat frequently remarks, if Siva is identified in those passages as the Supreme Brahman this identification has been going on ever since the very beginning. But we speak of an identification when there is a difference originally. Would it not therefore be more proper to say that the words Siva and Rudra are merely the names and His Form, the Form of the supreme Brahman?


    We cannot here omit to note the fact also that there are temples in India in which God (Siva) is worshipped in one or other of these eight forms.


    As Earth, He is worshipped in Kanchi (Conjeeveram), as Water, in Jambukeshwaram (Trichinopoly), as Air, in Kalahasti; as Fire in Tiruvannamalai; as Akas, in Chidambara; as Sun, when everyone performs Surya Namaskaram; as Moon, in Somnath; as Pasu or Atma, in Pasupathi Temple in Nepal.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010


1.    How many tatvas are enumerated in Saiva Siddhanta?

    They are 36.


2.    How are they classified?

    They are divided into three kinds, Atma-tatva, Vidya-tatva and Siva-tatva.


3.    What is the textual authority for this division?

    The following is the text of Brihad Jabala:




        Kramatatvani santihi."


        The Atma-tatva are in the lower part. The Vidya-tatva in the middle. And the     Siva-tatva are in the upper part.


4.    What Puranic text supports this authority?

    "Siva vidyatmatatvakhyam tatvatryamudahrutam." says Vayu Samhita.


5.    What are the Atma-tatva?

    The five elements, the five tanmatras, the five Karmendriyas, the five     Gnanendriyas,    and the four antahkarana form the 24 tatvas. Some exclude     Chittam,     and include Prakriti or Guna and make up 24.


6.    What is the Vedic authority for this enumeration?

    The following is the text of Prasnopanishad.

    Pruthivicha pruthivimatrachapaschapomatracha tetejascha tejomatracha vayuscha vayumatrachakasascha kasamatracna chakshuscha drashdavyancha srotrancha strotavyancha ghranancha ghratavyancha rasacha rasitavyancha tvakcha sparsayitavyancha vakcha vaktavyancha hastancha adadavyanchopasthaschanandayidavyancha payuscha visarjayidavyancha padaucha gantavyancha manascha mantavyancha buddhischa boddhavyanchahankaraschaham kartavyancha chittancha chetayitavyancha....


7.    What Puranic texts support this?

a.    Brhmanda Purana:

    Bhumiraponalovayurakasa gandha evacha. Rasorupam sparsa sabdopastha payurpadani cha. Panivagagharana gihva tvak chakshus srottrameva cha. Aghankarascha buddhischa manah prakrithi....


b.    Vayu Samhita and Devi Bhagavata:

    Pancha    bhutani tanmattrah pancha karmendrayancha. Gnakarma vibhedenapancha pancha vibhakasah. Dwagat dhatava sapta pancha pranati vayavah. Manobhuddhirankhyatin gunah....



c.    Kailasa Samhita:

    Pruthiviyadicha sabdadi vagadyam panchakam punah Srotradyancha (Sirhparsva prushthodara chatushdayam. Mano (retascha) buddhischa agham kritih khyatirevacha. (Sankalpancha) gunah...


8.    What are the Vidyatatva?

    Time, Kala, Niyati, Ragam, Vidya, Maya, and Purusha, are the seven Vidyatatva.


9.    What is the Vedic Authority?

    Svetasvatara, 1 and 2.

        "Kalasvabhavo niyadier yadirichcha bhuutani yonih purushaiti chintyam."

    Of these svabhavo is the same as Kala, Ichcha, and Ragam are synonymous, Butha is Vidya, Yoni is Maya.


10.    Which is the Puranic Upa Brahmanan?

    The following text from Kailasa Samhita, which refers distinctly to the Upanishad     text.


    ............purushasyatu, Bhoktrutvam pratipannasya bhojanecha prayatnatah. Antarangatayatatwapanchakam prakirtitam. Niyatih kalaragascha vidya cha tadanandaram. Kalachapanchakamidam mayotpannammunisvara. Mayantu prakrutimvidyan maya srutihetirita. Taijanyetani tatvani srutiyuktani na samsavah. Kalasvabhavoniyatiriti cha srutirabravit. Etatphanchakamevasyspancha kanchukamuchyate. Ajanan pancha tatvani vidvanapi vimudhadhih. Niyatyadhastatprakrute ruparisthah pumanayam. Vidyatatvamidam proktam.....


(b)    Brahmanda Purana:

    ............. (prakruti) purushou. Niyatih kalara-ascha kalavidyecha mayaya.


(c)    Vayu Samhita:

    Maya kalamavasrujat niyatincha kalam vidyam kalatho ragapurushou.


11.    What are the Siva-tatva?

    The five, Sivam, (Nadam) Sakti (Brudhu) Sadakkhyam, Iswaram, and Suddha-Vidya.


12.    What is the Vedic authority?

    Bruhad Jabala:

        "Sivam saktinj sadakkyam isam vidyakhya Mevacha."


13.    What is the Puranic Upa Brahmana?

a.    Vayu Samhita:

    Nadatvinisruto bindurbindor devassadasivah.     Tasmanmahesvarojatassudhavidyamahesvarat.


b&c.     Kailasa Samhita:

    ....... Suddhavidyamahesvarou. Sadasivascha saktischa Sivachetantu panchakam. Sivatavamidam brumman praganabrummava kyatah.


d.    Brahmanda Purana:

    Suddhavidyesvarasadasiva sakti siva iti.

14.    Give all the above in order?

    Sivam, Sakti, Sadakhyam, Iswaram, Suddha Vidya, Asuddha-Maya, Kala, Time, Niyati, Vidya, ragam, Purusha, (Prakriti) Buddhi, Ahankara, Manas, Chittam, ear, eye, nose and tongue, skin, mouth, feet, hand, anus, and genitals, sound, touch, form, taste and smell, Akas, air, fire, water and earth.


15.    What are the tatvas enumerated according to Sankhya?

    Satvarajastamasam samyavastha prakruter mahan mahato ahankaro ahankarat pancha tanmatrani ubhayamindiryam tanmatrebhya sthula bhutani purusha iti pancha vimsatir ganah.

    Mula Prakriti made up of Satva, Rajas and Tamas, and Mahat, arising from the same, Ahankara arising from the last, Manas, Gnanendriya and Karmendriya and Tanmatras arising from the above, and what arises from above, namely the five gross elements, together with Purusha constitute the 25 tatvas according to Sankhya.


16.    What do these 25 tatvas correspond to among Saiva categories?

    They are comprised in the 24 Atma-tatvas.


17.    Are the tatvas above these 24 set forth in Sankhya?



18.    What is the authority for this?

    The following verse from Siva Purana.

    Sankhyayogaprasiddhani tatvaniyapicha kani chit. Sivasastra prasiddhani tatonyanyapi krutsnasah.


    States that only some of the tatvas are explained in books of Sankhya and yoga. These and all other tatvas are set forth fully in the Siva-Agamas.


19.    What are the tatvas enumerated in Pancharatra?

    The five gross elements, the five Karmendriyas and the five Gnanendriyas, the five Tanmatras, Manas Ahankara, Mahat and Prakriti. (above these is five, and above him, Vasudeva)


20.    How are they comprised in the Saiva categories?

    They are composed among the 24 Atmatatvas.


21.    What are the tatvas enumerated by the School of Mayavada?

a.    Says Varahopanishad:

    Gnanendriyani panchaiva srottratvag lochanadayuh. Karmendriyani panchaiva vagpanyanghriyadayah. Pranadayastu panchaiva panch subdadayas tatha. Manobhuddhirankaras chittam cheti chatushdayam, chaturvimsati tatvani tani brahmana vido viduh.

    The five Gnanendriyas, the five Karmendriyas, the five Vayus Prana, 7c., the five tanmatras, Manas, Buddhi, Chittam, and Ahankara, forming in all 24 tatvas.


b.    Says Suta-Samhita.

    Akasadini bhudani panchatesham prakirtitah. Gunas sabdadayuh pancha pancha karmendriyani cha. Gnanendriyani panchaiva pranadya dasa vayavah. Manobhuddhirankaras chittam cheti chatushddayam. Tesham karanabhudaikavidya shaddrimsakah pasuh. Visvasya jagatah karta pasorannyah parassivah.

    "The five gross elements, the five Karmendriyas, the five Gnanendriyas, the five Karmendriyas, the ten Vayus Prana, &c., the four Andakaranas, their cause. Mulaprakriti or Avidya, and Jiva from the 86 tatvas."


22.    Are these 36 tatvas the same as the 36 tatvas of Siva Siddhanta?

    No. 10 of these, the Dasa Vayu are included under Vayu of the Siddhanta categories. Avidya is the same as Mulaprakriti and Jiva is indistinguishable from Rajas, and these 36 are comprised under the 24 Atma-tatva; and do not comprise all the 36 of the Siva-Siddhanta.


23.    Can the Vidya and Siva-tatvas, set forth in the Upanishads be comprised under Mulaprakriti in any way?


    From Buddhi to earth are contained in and arise from Mulaprakriti; and Mulaprakriti itself is contained in and arise from Vidya tatvas, &c. How can the container arise from the contained?


24.    What is the highest ideal of Pancharatris and Mayavadis?

    Their ideal is only Jiva, in his Saguna or Nirguna aspect, and which is mixed up in the lower tatvas from Prakriti downwards.


25.    Whom does "Vishnu" in the following Rig verse denote?

    'Tatvishnohparamam padam. sadapasyantisurayah."

    "The Supreme Abode of this Vishnu, the Sages always see."

    As "Vishnu" is one of the names of Siva enumerated as below this "Vishnu" means 'Siva alone'?

    Sivomahesaras chaiva rudrovishnuh pitamah. Samharavaidyas sarvajnah paramatmeti mukhyatah.


26.    What is the meaning of the word "Vishnu"?

    "As the text says"

    Sivatatvadi bhumyantam sarirati ghatadi cha Vyapyadhi tishthati sivas tato vishnurudahrutah.


    "Siva is called 'Vishnu' as He pervades the 36 tatvas from Siva tatva to earth."


27.    Why should not this "Vishnu" mean "Vasudeva"?

    As Vasudeva does not pervade the Vidya and Siva tatvas, He cannot be called "Vishnu," 'All Pervader."


28.    What Upanishad text supports the above mentioned interpretation?

    Compare the following text of Katha Upanishad.

    Soddhvanah paramapnoti tadvishnoh paramam padam.


29.    What are the Adharas of the above text?

    Mantraddhva cha padaddhva cha varnaddhveti sabdidah. Bhuvanaddhva cha tatvaddhva kaladdhva chartthatah kramat.

    Mantram, Padam, Varnam, Bhuvanam, tatva, Kala, form the 6 minds of Adhwa.

    Kalatatvanchabhuvanam varnam padamatahparam Mantrascheti samasena shadadhva paripathyate.


30.    What is Kala?

    Nivrutyadayah kalah pancha kaladdhva kathyate budaih.

    Nivirti Prathishta, Vidya, Santi, Santyatiti are the five Kalas.


31.    What are Tatva Adhwa?

    Sivatatvadi bhumyantam tatvaddhva samudahrutah.

    They are the 36 tatvas from Siva tatva to earth.


32.    What is Brahama Adhwa?

    Adharadyunmanandascha bhuvanaddhva prakirtitah.

    They are the Buvanas from Kalagri. Rudra Bhuvana to Unmanantham.


33.    What is Varnam?

    Panchasadrudra rupastu varna varnaddhvasamjitah.

    They are the 50 letters from "A" to 'Ksha'


34.    What is "Padam"?

    Anekabhedasampannah padaddhva samudahrutah.

    They are the 31 Pada from Vyoma Vyapini.


35.    What is Mantra?

    Saptakotimahamantra mantraddhva samutahrutah.

    They are the seven crores of Maha-mantras; also the 11 great mantras.


36.    How are they related to each?

    They are related as Vyapaka Vyappya. Mantras are pervaded by Pada, Padas by Varna, Varna by Bhuvana, Bhuvana by Tatva, Tatva by Kala.

    Mantras sarve padair vyapta vakyabhavatpadani cha Varnaivarna samuhamhi padamahur vipaschitah Bhuvananyapi tatvou ghairandasyantar bahih kramat. Vyaptani karanais tatvairarabdhatvadanekasah. Kala. bhis tani tatvani vyaptanyeva yatha tatham.


37.    What are the tatvas pervaded by Nivirtikala?

    The earth.


38.    By Prathishta Kala?

    From water to Prakriti.


39.    By Vidya Kala?

    From Purusha to Maya.


40.    By Santi Kala?

    Vidya and the two next.


41.    By Santyatita Kala?

    Sakti and Siva tatvas.


42.    What circle (chakara) does Nivrti Kala form? Who rules it?

    Niviruttirupamakhyatam srushdi chakramidambudhaih Pitamahadhishthitancha padametaddhi so bhitam. Etadevapadam prapya brahmmarpita dhyam nirnam.

    Srishti chakra. Brahma. They who meditate on Brahma reach this circle.

43.    What circle does Prathishta Kala form? Who rules it?

    Sthitichakramidam brahman pratishtha rupamuttamam. Janardanadhishthitancha paramampatamuchyayate. Ramasaktiutovame sarvarakshakararomahan. Asyaiva vasudvadi chatushkam vyashtitam gatam. Vasudevoniruddhascha tatas sankarshanahparah. Pratyumnaschedi vikhyatam sthiti chakramitam param. Sthitis srushtasya jagatas tatkartrunancha palanam. Etadeva padam prapyam vishnupadaprasevinam.

    Sthithi Chakra. Vishnu.

    He is possessed by Rama-Sakti and protects all and is great. He has four Vyuha, called Vasudeva. Aniruddha, Pradhumna, and Sankarshana. He protects Brahma, and the rest. Devotees of Vishnu reach this Prathista Kala circle.


44.    What circle does Vidya Kala form?

    Samhara Chakra. Rudra. His devotees reach this Pada.

    Samharakhyamidam chakram vidyarupakalamayam.

    Adhishdthitanch rudrena padametanniramayam. Etadevapadamprapyam rudraradhana kankshinam.


45.    What circle does Santi Kala form?

    Tirobhavatmakam chakram bhavech chantikalamayam. Maheshvaradhishthitam chapadametadanuttamam Etadeva padam prapyam mahesapadasevinam.

    Droupava chakra. Maheshwara. His devotees reach His Supreme Abode.


46.    What circle does Santiyatita Kala form?

    Anugrahamayam chakram santiyatita kalamayam. Sadasivadhish thitam cha paramampadamuchyate. Etadevapadam prapyam yathinam bhavitatmanam Sadasiapasakanam pranavasakta chetasam. Etadevapadamprapya tenasakam munivarah. Bhuktva vipulan bhogan devenabruhmarupina. Mahapralayasambutau bhogan devenabruhmarupina. Mahapralayasambhutau siva samyam bhajanti hi. Tebruhmaloka iti cha srutiraha sanatani. Aisvarye na sampanna ityahatharvani sikha.


    Anugraha Chakra. Sadasiva. His devotees, whose mind is merged in Pranava, reach this Abode; and from there reach the Highest Union with the Supreme Siva.

    Hence the text of Munduka.

    "Debruhmalokeshu" (parantakaleparamrutah parimuchyanti sarve),

    Saravaisvaryenasampannah (sarvesvarassambhurakasamadhye).


47.    How is Maya classified?

    Maya is divided into Maha Maya, Maya and Prakriti, according to the Sivagamas.

    Mayamayacha maya vai trividha smruta.

    Mahamayacha mayacha prakrutis triguneticha


48.    What are their other names?

    Mahamaya is called also Para Prakriti Maya has sukshuma Prakriti, and Prakriti as Sthula Prakriti.

    Prakrutistesham sthula sukshma paretyasau. Mahamayabhavettridha tatrasthula qunatmika. Buddhiyati bhogya janani prakrutihpurushasya sa. Sukshma kaladi tatvanamavibha gasvarupini.




50.    What are the other names of Maha Maya?

    Vindhu and Kundalini, according to Pushkara; and Vidya, Maya, Parai, Paravakisvari according to Chintyam, Visvam, Sadahkiram and other Agamas.


51.    What is the Siva-tatva?

    Srushtikaletu kutilah kundalyakaraye sthitah. Tanmaddhyegnanamutpannam tadrupam nadamuchyate Tadatitanvararoge paratatvam niarmayam. Suddhasphatikasankasam sivatatvantu yat smurutam. Aprameyamanirdis yamanaupamamanamayam Shukshman sarvagatam nityam dhuruvamavyaya mishvaram. Sivatatvamidam proktam sarvorddhvo pari samsthitam. Onkaratmatmatayabhati santiyatitah parassivah.


    Says Gnana Siddhi on Agama:

    "When Srishti began, Kudilai (Siva tatva) became of the form of Kundali: In its midst, Nadam arose as Intelligence. This is pure, Supreme Tatva, pure as crystal is Siva Tatva."


    According to Swayambhu Agama:

    "This is past measure and past description and past comparison; Nameless, all pervasive, eternal, and permanent, and Supreme is Siva Tatva. In it dwells Parasiva, as Santyatita, and is of the form of Omkara.


52.    How are the Sivatatva evolved?

    Siddhanta Saravali states:

    Udiyogachchaktitatvam prasaraticha vibhostatkaladhyam sisrukshor hindoh pragdrukkryabhyam sadrusamadhikrutadyatsadesakhyatatvam. Adhikyenesatatvam manuvati sahitam tatkriyasaktiyogat gnakhya sakhyoganmanunivahamukhais suddhavidyakhyatatvam.

    From the Will of Paramasiva, Kudilai arose, and from it arose the Sakti tatva filled with Kala Bhuvana. From the Will of the Lord again, did rise Sadakkiam clothed with Gnana and Kriya, from the above said Sakti tatva. By the power of Kriya Sakti did arise Iswara tatva with countless Mantreshwarar. By the Power of the Gnana Sakti did arise Suddha Vidya tatva with seven crores of Mahamantrar."


53.    What is the Upa Brahmanam supporting this?

    Says Kailasa Samhita:

    Nijechchayajagatasrushdumudiyuktasya mahesituh. Prathamoyahparispandassivatatvam tatuuchyate. Eshaivechcha saktitatvam sarvakrutyanuvartanat. Gnanakriyasasantiyugme gnanadhikye sadasivah. Mahesvaram kriyodreke tatvam viddhi munisvara. Gnanakriyasaktisamyam suddhavidyatmakam matam.


54.    Who dwells in these five Tatvas?

    Trividhampara mesasya vapurloke prasasyate. Nishkalam prathamanchaikantatassakala nishkalam. Trutiyam sakalam chaiva nanyathetidvijottamah. Ekam sthulam sukshmamekam susukshmam murtta murtta mekamhiyamurtham -

    "Of the forms of Parameshwara, He who dwells in Siva and Sakti tatva is the Sukshuma Nishakala Siva. In the Sadakkya tatva dwells the Sukshuma Sakala, Nishkala Sadasiva. In Iswaram and Vidya tatvas dwells the Sthula Sakala Maheshwara."


55.    What is the meaning of 'tatva'?

    The agama definition is:

    Apralayam yattishti sarvesham bhogadayibhutanam, Tatvamiti khyatam tanna sariraghataditatvatah.

    Unlike the bodies which perish, these 36 tatvas endure till the great Pralaya and hence are called 'Tatvas'.


56.    Why are the tatvas and the dwellers therein called by the same name?

    Saiva Gnanothara says:

    Yaninamanitatvanamtani tatvadhipeshvapi, Gnatvaivam yojayenmantram yasmin yah praptumihata.

    By whatever names the tatvas are called, by the same name are called the dwellers therein.


57.    How are the Vidya and Atma tatvas evolved?

    Mayatonantayogatprasarati cha kalakalatatvam niyatya vidya rakahkalatah prakruti sakhamito rudra yuggaunamastat. Buddhischatopyaham kru trividha gunayuta dimdriyair manasam prakkarmakshanyevamatras svaguna gatabhidah pancha bhutani tebhyah.

    From Maya or Sukshuma Prakriti, by the action of Ananteshwara of Ishwara tatva, do arise Kala, Time and Niyati. From Kala, did arise Vidya and Raga tatvas. From the above Maya, Purusha tatva clothed with the five coats of Kala, Time, Niyati, Vidya and Ragam along with Rudras. From Kala, did arise again Prakriti, and from it, Guna tatva (of Satva Rajas and Tamas) and from the latter did rise, Buddhi, and Ahankara, and from Satva. Taijasa Ahankara arose Manas and (Chittam) and the five Gnanendryas; from the Rajasa Vaikari Ahankara arose the Karmendryas; from the Tamasa Butha Ahankara did arise the five Tanmatras, and from the Tanmatras arose the gross elements so says the Siddhanta Saravali.


58.    What is the nature of Pasu (Soul)?

    Says Paushkara Agama:

    Pasuh pasutva samyogannamuktah pasuruchyate. Yasmatsvadrukkriyasali kalahinopyanisvarah. Vyapakas chinmas sukshmas sivavat samvyava sthitan.


    "As he is connected with mala, he is called Pasu, and not a Mukta: He is not united to kala, yet posseses, Gnana and Kriya (intelligence and action). He is not Isa, yet possesses all pervasiveness, and intelligence and subtleness in appearance like Siva.


59.    How many kinds of souls are there?

    Pasavastrividha gnayas sakalah pralayakalah. Vignana kala itiyesam srunuddhwam lakshanam kramat. Maloparuddha druk saktis tatprasruttyai kaladi man. bhogaya karmasambadhas sakalah paripathyate.

    Pasu (souls) are divided into three classes Vignanakalar Pralayakalar, and Sakalar .... Of these, Sakalar possess powers of intelligence, and will and action dimmed by Mala, and for these partial manifestations, these powers uniting with Kala, Ragam and Viddei, the souls are bound by Karma for the purpose of undergoing pain and pleasure.


60.    Who are Sakalars?

    Vide definition given above.

    Maloparuddhadruk saktis tatprasrutyai kaladiman. Bhogaya karmasambandhas sakalah pari pathyate.


61.    How are Kala and other tatvas which induce Bhoga in the soul called?

    They are styled Pancha Kanchuka. (The five-fold coat).



62.    How is this Pasu (Atma) called by Mayavadis following their own upanishads?

    As stated in the table at D... they call it Nirguna Brahmam, Kutastha Brahmam, Siva, Paramasiva, &c.


63.    Is this usage found also in Saiva Upanishads and Upabrahmanas?


    As stated in D2, soul is called Siva, Parabrahma, Hara, Kshetragna, &c.


64.    Give a text for this soul styled Siva, getting the Panchakanchuka?

    The Kailasa-Samhita says.


    Sarvakarttrutwa rupacha, sarvajgnatva swarupini. Purnatva rupanityatva vyapakatva svarupini. Sivasya saktayah pancha sankuchadrupabhaskarah. Apisankocharupena vibhantya itinityasah. Pasoh kalakhya vidyeti raga kalau niyatyapi. Tatvapanchaka rupena bhavantiyatra kaleti sa. Knichit kartrutva hetus syat knichit tutvaika sadhanam. Savidya ti bhaved ragovishayeshvanuranjakah. Kalohi bhavabhavanam bhasana bhasanatmakah. Krumavachchedako bhutva bhutadirti kathyate. Edantu mama karttavyamidam neti niyamika. Nyatis syad vibhos saktis tadakshepat patet pasuh.


    The atma (soul) who is Siva, and possessed of the five powers of perfect action, full intelligence, and fulness, omnipresence, eternality unites itself for the better manifestation of itself, (1) with Kala, inducing action, (2) Viddei inducing intelligence, (3) and Ragam inducing Desire and (4) Time, inducing knowledge and ignorance of things existent and non-existent and both (5) Niyati, inducing perceptions of fitness in one's doing or not doing a thing; and being clothed in this Panchakanchuka is called Purusha.


65.    By what mark is the position of the atma, called, Jiva and Panchakanchuki indicated in the table?

    By E2.


66.    Where is the circle of the Anantar who created the Panchakanchuka out of Maya for the Jiva.

    They dwell in Iswara tatva No. 33 in the table.


67.    Is the Jiva called Siva as he is Panchakanchuki alone or for any other reason also?

    Yes. Kailasa Samhita says:


    Svankarupeshubhaveshu mayatatva vibhedadhih. Sivoyada nijam rupam paramaisvarya purvakam. Niguhyamayayakhilapadarttha graha kobhavet. Tada purusha ityakhya tatsrushtvetyabhavachchrutih. Ayamevahi samsuri mayayamohitah pasuh. Sivadabhinnam na jugadatmanam bhinnamityapi. Janatosya pasor deva moho bhavati na prabhoh. Yathaindra jalikasyapi yogino na bhaved bhramah. Guruna gnapitaisvaryas sivo bhavati chidghanah.


    When the contemplating Siva, concealing its form of Supreme Powers in Maya, proceeds to understand the object sensations, he becomes Purusha. Hence the Sruti says "Tat Sristva." This Purusha becomes the Pasu covered by Maya. To understand himself as different from the world and as different from Siva will always leave him in delusion. This Delusion is not found in Siva. As the magician is not subject to delusion so also, the yogi is free from delusion. After the Guru imparts the truth, he becomes Siva of immaculate Powers and Intelligence."


68.    How is the Brahman denoted in the Table?

    By the letter D1.


69.    How is the Jiva subject to Upadhis denoted?

    By the letter E1.


70.    Is there difference between this Jiva denoted by E1 and the Panchakanchuka Jiva denoted by E2.?

    Though derived in different ways, there is no difference in substance.


71.    What is the authority?

    Advaita saivavedoyam dvaitam na sahate kvachit. Sarvajgnas sarva karti cha siva eva sva mayaya. Sankuchadrupa ivasan purusha sam babhuvaha. Kaladi panchakenaiva bhoktrutvena prakalpitah. Prakrutisthuh pumanesha bhunkte pra krutijan gunan. Itisthana dvayantusthch parusho navirodhakah.


    Says Kailasa Samhita: Adwaita Saivam will not accept Dwaita in any form: The Supreme Intelligence and Supreme Cause, Siva, by his own Maya dwindled into a being of small form, Jiva. By the union with Kaladi Panchakanchuka, he became created as the enjoyer. This very Purusha dwelling in Maya eats the fruits of Maya. These two Purushas of different places are not different.


72.    Do the two kinds of Jivas above described really differ, before they are enveloped in the Panchakanchuka and the Upadhis respectively?



73.    If so, can the Ideal of the Mayavadi is be said to be the Final One?

    No; in as much as the True Brahman is above these Upadhis, and far above the Vidya and Siva Tatvas.


74.    Is the Pathi, Isa with His consort dwelling in the Paraprakriti tatvas of Siva and Sakti, the same as the Isa dwelling in the Mulaprakriti?

    No. According to Saraswati Rahasyopanushad, Rudrak itayopanishad and Annapurni Upanishads, this Mulaprakriti is pronounced as Anirvachaniya and false, and the reflection of Isa in the Satva and other Gunas is equally regarded as imaginary. But the Highest Lord, transcending the 36 tatvas, is regarded as eternal and not transitory, according to Isa and Kena and other Upanishads, as for instance in the text: "Nityonityanam chetanaschetananam."

    So the two Isas cannot be the same.


75.    Is the Jiva (of Mayavada School), the reflection of Rajoguna in Maya and the marked E1 and the Jiva marked D2 the same?

    No. The Mahanarayanopanishad texts "Andakae ranopadika sarve Jivah: Mal Jivatvam Ishatvam Kalpitam."

    Speak of this Jiva as imagined. But the atma, as spoken of in the following texts of Chandogya and Katha.


    "Na mryate jivah

    Najayate nryate vipaschit"

is not mortal, neither is it born.


    Hence the two are not the same. (In the simile of the crystal and colours, the Rajoguna Jiva will be analogous to the Red colour or picture reflected in the crystal, which should be distinguished from the real crystal, the true Jiva).


76.    Is the Mayasakti attached to Brahman, (D1) the same as the Sakti of Siva attached to the 35 and 36 tatvas?

    No. They are different, the colours reflected in a crystal are different from the Light of the Sun. The Light is indistinct from the Sun itself and is in Samavaya relation; and thought it enables the colours to shine and be reflected, is yet distinct from the colours.

    Consider the text.

    Aparetu parasaktis sivasya samavayini. Tadatmyamanayor nityam vanni dahakyoriva. Atas taddharmadharraitvat para saktih paratmanah. Prabhayahi vinayadvadbhanu resha na vidyate. Na sivena vina saktir na sakyacha vina sivah.


77.    Are the illustrations of a mirage, son of a barren woman, Post mistaken for a man, Betala, Gandarva City, Rope and Snake, and the terms Adhyasa, Arupam, Swapna-Loka, Kalpana found in Sarvasara, Niralamba, Tejobindu, Saharahasya Mahopanishad, Varaham, Rudra-Hridayam, Anna Purni, Sandilya Yoga ika, &c., are found in the Principal twelve Upanishads?



78.    In these principal Upanishads are the Jiva and Ishwara spoken of as imaginary as in the first set of Upanishads?

    No. Besides, these Upanishads speak of Gargi Akasam (Chidambaram) (Dahara Akasam) Vyomam, Parasakti, Devatma Sakti, Grace of Siva, Brahma Loka and Siva Loka. These terms do not find a place in the Mayavada Upanishads.


79.    Why should the 12 Upanishads be of greater authority than the others?

    For the principal reason, that the Vedanta Sutras refer to these as authoriative and do not refer to the others at all.


80.    What are the Buvana (worlds) in which these 36 tatvas are contained?

    There are 1000 worlds in Prithvi (earth) tatva.

    From water to the 4th tatva, there are 56 Buvana.

    In the 7 Vidya tatvas, there are 27 Buvana.

    In the Sudda Veddei, Ishwaram and Sadahkiam, there are 18 worlds. In the Sakti and Sivatatva, there are 15 Buvanas.


81.    What are the Buvanas in the Sakti tatvas?

    Indika, Deepika, Rochika, Mosika, Urdhvaka, Vyapini, Vyomaruoini, Anandai, Anadai, Anasruthai are the Buvanas.

    The names of other Buvanas must be studied in the Agamas.


82.    Why is the term 'Brahmalokeshu' used in the plural, in the Mundaka (Brihadaranayaka and Kaivalya and Taittriya, and Chandogya and T. Mahanarayam &c.,?

    For the reason that there are several lokas in the Sakti and Siva Tatvas as above.

83.    Can this 'Brahmalokeshu' be identified with the Heavens of Trimurties?

    No, for the reason, that these heavens of the Gods are found far below in the scale of the tatvas and they are not the Supreme Goal from which there is no return. But the Upanishads mentioned speak of the 'Brahmalokeshu' as not inducing future births.

    "Brahma lokamabhi Sampadhyate.

    Nagapunaravertate, Nagapunaravartate." (Changodya).


84.    What is the Siva Tatva?

    See answer to question No. 51.


85.    What is Sakti Tatva?

    Gnana Siddhi says, "By means of Gnanam (Nada), Kriya arose. The form of this is Bindhu."

    Gnanenatukriyotpannam tatrupambinduruchyate.


86.    What is Sadasiva Tatva?

    Guana Siddhi Agama says,

    "Where Gnana and Kriya are in equal proportion, it is Sadahkya form. This tatva is both Sakala and Nishkala."

    Gnanakriyasamavyaptam kartru satukhyarupakam.

    Sadasivakhyatatvamtu sakala nishkalam bhatvet.


87.    What is Ishwara tatva?

    Gnana Siddhi says, "where Gnana is less and Kriya is more, this is Maheshwara Tatva."

    Gnananyunam kriyadhikyam mahesastatva vigraham


88.    What is Suddha Vidya tatva?

    Chintya-Agama says "Where Gnana is more and Kriya less, this is Vidya tatva.

    Kriyasaktiyapaharshancha gnanasaktiydbanan tatha.

    Vidya tatvasya chotnattir gnagorbha bhavat tada.


89.    What is Asudha Maya?

    Paushkara says "It is Maya that changes everything in the world into its own form. This is eternal, one, all pervasive, real, subject of Karma, cause of Men's Samasara from Maya, there are two kinds of Srishti, Sthula and Sukshma.

    The Sukshma Srishti comprises the clothing of the Atma in Kaladi-tatvas, giving rise to the manifestation of the Higher intellectual Powers. The Sthula, Srishti comprieses the visible worlds, and body and senses.

    Mayatyasmajjadvisam mayatena samirita. Nityeka vyapinivastu rupa karmasraya siva. Sadharanicha sarvesham sakalanam munisvarah. Mayaya dvividha srushdis sthula sukshmatmiketyapi. Druk sakti vyanjika sukshma sthita tatvatmanatmani, stulabhuvana rupena sariratyatmana sthita.


90.    What are the five tatvas from Maya?

    Kala, Vidya, Raga, Kala (Time) and Niyati.

    Kalavidya cha ragascha kaloniyatirevacha. Panchai tanitatvani mayeyani dvijottamah.




91.    What is Kala?

    Says Paushkara - 'For the manifestation of Intelligence, it removes the Mala a little and brightens the intelligence. This is Kala tatva."

    Malan sarvatmanabhitva chaitanya prasaratmanah.


92.    What is Time?

    Chintya Agama says: "From the Maya of illimitable powers. Time arose. This is Past, Present and Future. This matures Mala."

    Anandasakti rupaya mayatah kalasambhavah. Bhutahhavya bhavisbyascha tridha rupobhavetpunah. Mulunamparipakvarttham kalatatvasya sambhavah.


93.    What is Vidya?

    The following Text: "For the enjoyment of Atma, the Vidya tatvam arose from Kala. On the man, made agent by Kala, is induced intelligent action by means of Vidya tatva."

    Tatovidya kalatatvadabhudbogartthamatamanah. Kalayukarttru bhutasya bhuddhilaksana karmanah. Alokane yatkaranam savidya siva sasane.


94.    What is Ragam?

    The text says: "The man whose mind involved in desire is further led into desire. This is done by Ragatatva."

    Pravruttasya pravrut yartthamapi ragah pravarttate.


95.    What is Niyati?

    The authority says: What impels man to action is Niyati."

    Nyatischa tatha karma phaleniyamayatyanwh.


96.    What is Purusha tatva?

    The following is the text: "He who is clothed in the Kaladi Panchuka, and who is united to Avidya and who is ready to enjoy the Prakriti Bhogya is called, Purusha."

    Panchakanchukasumyaktah prakrutim bhoktumudyatah. Avidyadi samayuktah purushah parikirthithah.


97.    Where did Prakriti rise from?

    The Maya which arose in a gross form from Kala is Mulaprakriti and comprises from earth to Guna.

    Tatcha mayodhhavam yasmat kalutas sthulatam gatam. Gunadiskhiti paryantam tatva jatam yato bhavet.